Orthopedic and Neurologic Tests

By Richard C. Schafer, DC, FICC



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Table of Contents
Part 1: Regional Index of Clinical Signs and Tests by Syndrome

Abdominal syndromes -16
Ankle syndromes -16
Cerebellar syndromes -16
Cerebral syndromes -17
Cervical syndromes -17
Cranial nerve syndromes -18
Elbow and forearm syndromes -19
Foot syndromes -19
Hand and finger syndromes -20
Hip syndromes -20
Knee syndromes -20
Leg syndromes -21
Low back pain syndromes -21
Pelvic syndromes -22
Sacroiliac syndromes -23
Shoulder and arm syndromes -23
Thigh syndromes -24
Thoracic outlet and related syndromes -24
Thoracic syndromes -24
Wrist syndromes -25

Part 2: Selected Neurologic Problems

Overview -26
Types of neuritides -26
Peripheral neuritis -26
Local neuritis -27
Disassociated anesthesias in cord lesions -27
Cervical lesions and cerebral vasomotor disturbances -28
The pyramidal system -28
The extrapyramidal system -29
Cerebellar lesions -29
Localizing symptoms and signs of intracranial lesions -29
Examination of cranial nerves -29
Additional signs of intracranial lesions -31
Principles of neurologic examination -32
Sensory disturbances -32
Motor disturbances -33
Neurologic aspects of subluxation syndromes -34
Nerve root insults -34
Reflex irritations -36
Other causes -37
Geriatric considerations -40
Pediatric considerations -40
Cranial and thoracic measurements -40
Developmental progress -40
Height estimation during development -42
Percent of mature height anticipated -42
A physical examination routine -43
More helpful tables -47

Part 3: Glossary of Common Orthopedic and Neurologic Tests, Signs, Maneuvers, Reflexes, Syndromes, and Related Clinical Phenomena -62

Bibliography -128

List of Tables:

Table 1. Comparison of upper and lower motor neuron lesions -33

Table 2. Chart of superficial and deep reflexes -34

Table 3. Checkpoints in a physical examination routine -44

Table 4. Distribution of cervical nerves -48

Table 5. Function of major upper cervical nerve fibers -48

Table 6. Function of major lower cervical nerve fibers -49

Table 7. Grades of deep (tendon) reflexes -50

Table 8. Motor function signs relative to nervous system levels -51

Table 9. General interpretation of resisted motion signs -51

Table 10. Approaches in evaluating autonomic imbalance -52

Table 11. Grades of muscle strength -53

Table 12. Classes of intervertebral disc syndromes -53

Table 13. Classification of sprains -53

Table 14. Classification of strains -54

Table 15. Common upper body myotome and dermatome tests -55

Table 16. Common upper extremity nerve entrapment syndromes -56

Table 17. Abdominal syndromes signs and tests -57

Table 18. Classic site of spinal majors -57

Table 19. Pertinent clinical laws -58

Table 20. Alarm points of the body -65

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