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European Journal of Pain (London, England)
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Table 3

Prognostic factors, with crude and adjusted hazard rate ratios and confidence intervals, associated with time‐to‐self‐reported recovery in 3354 Saskatchewan (Canada) residents with mid‐back pain after traffic collisions occurring in 1997–1999, analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model

Prognostic factorsCrude HRR (90% CI)Adjusted HRR (95% CI)
Age group (years)
18–23(Reference level)(Reference level)
24–290.955 (0.844–1.079)1.053 (0.928–1.195)
30–390.792 (0.708–0.886)a 0.888 (0.788–1.001)
40–490.749 (0.666–0.843)a 0.840 (0.742–0.951)a
≥500.698 (0.620–0.785)a 0.788 (0.696–0.891)a
Number of dependents
≤2(Reference level)(Reference level)
≥30.813 (0.734–0.899)a 0.833 (0.731–0.948)a
Mid‐back pain intensity (NRS‐11)b 0.907 (0.894–0.921)a 1.000 (0.979–1.022)
Low back pain intensity (NRS‐11)0.931 (0.922–0.940)a 0.960 (0.948–0.973)a
Head pain intensity (NRS‐11)0.925 (0.917–0.934)a 0.956 (0.944–0.968)a
Hand pain intensity (NRS‐11)0.936 (0.924–0.948)a 0.970 (0.954–0.986)a
Health now compared to 1 year ago
Somewhat or much better, or about the same(Reference level)(Reference level)
Somewhat or much worse0.629 (0.590–0.671)a 0.781 (0.720–0.848)a
Number of severely affecting comorbiditiesc
0(Reference level)(Reference level)
10.879 (0.812–0.951)a 0.961 (0.872–1.059)
20.733 (0.646–0.831)a 0.961 (0.821–1.124)
≥30.519 (0.436–0.617)a 0.719 (0.579–0.893)a
Expectations for recovery
Get better soon(Reference level)(Reference level)
Get better slowly0.612 (0.564–0.663)a 0.717 (0.647–0.795)a
Never get better0.204 (0.152–0.273)a 0.279 (0.195–0.399)a
Do not know0.397 (0.364–0.434)a 0.506 (0.451–0.567)a
Previous injury claim (MVC); SGI
No(Reference level)(Reference level)
Yes0.642 (0.597–0.690)a 0.716 (0.654–0.783)a
Previous injury claim (non‐MVC); other insurance/disability plan
No(Reference level)(Reference level)
Yes0.808 (0.747–0.875)a 0.869 (0.787–0.958)a

HRR, hazard rate ratio; CI, confidence interval; NRS‐11, numerical rating scale; MVC, motor vehicle collision; SGI, Saskatchewan Government Insurance (universal traffic insurer in Saskatchewan).

aConfidence intervals not containing 1.
bMid‐back pain intensity was forced in the model during the modelling process.
cComorbidities includes non‐traumatic musculoskeletal disorders, allergies, respiratory diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes mellitus, renal or genitourinary diseases, neurological deficits, headaches, mental illnesses and cancer, the highest possible number of severely affecting comorbidities was 12.
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