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Table 3

Comparing the clusters in this study with subgroups in previous studies on patients with LBP

Langworthy [34]Chen [35]Tamcan [36]Dunn [38]Kongsted [5]This study
Constant painContinous highSevere persistentSevere
chronic

Moderate persistentCluster 4

Mild
persistent
Mild
persistent
Unchanged,
improves
thereafter
Clusters 1 & 3

Fluctuating painFluctuatingFluctuatingFluctuatingImproved,
Fluctuates
thereafter
Cluster 3

Cluster 1

RecoveringImproved,
remains so
Cluster 2

Large reductionCluster 4
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