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Table 2

Risk of bias rated using the criteria of the Cochrane Back Review Group [8, 9] and methodological quality of the economic evaluation rated using the Consensus Health Economic Criteria (CHEC-list) [12]

Risk of bias score (/11)CHEC-list (/19)a
Hollinghurst et al. [24]717 (1)
Jellema et al. [25]918 (1)
Johnson et al. [26]712 (1)
Karjalainen et al. [22, 23]813 (0)
Kominski et al. [18]511 (4)
Kovacs et al. [16]415 (1)
Loisel et al. [20]514 (0)
Ratcliffe et al. [27]519 (0)
Seferlis et al. [19]47 (5)
Skouen et al. [21]514 (1)
UK BEAM Trial Team [17]517 (1)

aThe number of items that were not applicable from the CHEC-list is in parentheses. For example, performing an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (Item 13) was not applicable for cost-minimisation or cost-benefit analysis, and discounting (Item 14) was not applicable for studies with a follow-up of 1 year or less

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