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Table 4

Cost-effective/cost-utility analysis comparing usual GP care alone versus usual GP care plus additional treatment

Study ID and perspectiveIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio (in cost per one unit of effect gained)
Hollinghurst et al. [24]
 Perspective: healthcare sector, patients, societalUsual GP care plus exercise and behavioural counselling compared to usual GP care alone from the healthcare sector’s perspective only (in 2005 GBP):
•Disability (RMDQ) = 61
•Pain-free days = 9
•QALY gained (EQ-5D) = 2,847
Karjalainen et al. [22, 23]
 Perspective: not stated, but collected direct healthcare and indirect costsNot conducted, but usual GP care plus advice, education and exercise with or without work site visit, incurred lower costs and was more effective compared to usual GP care alone.
Kovacs et al. [16]
 Perspective: not stated, but collected direct healthcare and indirect costsNot conducted

GBP United Kingdom pounds, RMDQ Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, QALY quality-adjusted life-years

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