Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
Spine J. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Jul 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Spine J. 2014 Jul 1; 14(7): 1106–1116.
Published online 2013 Oct 16. doi:  10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.468

Table 2

Primary Outcomes

Observed unadjusted Mean (SD)
Slope (95%CI) Adjusted Mean difference (95% CI)
SMT 0SMT 6SMT 12SMT 18per 6 SMT sessionsSMT 0 vs SMT 6SMT 0 vs SMT 12SMT 0 vs SMT 18
Pain intensity (0-100 scale)
    0 wk52.2 (16.3)51.0 (18.2)51.6 (17.5)51.5 (16.8)
    6 wk34.5 (18.4)32.3 (15.8)27.1 (14.7)30.2 (19.0)1.8 (0.3, 3.2)*1.7 (−2.6, 5.9)7.2 (2.8, 11.6)*4.1 (−0.5, 8.6)
    12 wk37.9 (20.4)32.7 (19.4)29.0 (20.8)31.4 (19.8)2.2 (0.6, 3.8)*4.5 (−0.6, 9.6)8.6 (3.2, 14.0)*6.1 (1.0, 11.2)*
    18 wk35.7 (19.5)31.4 (18.4)30.3 (19.3)29.3 (19.7)2.0 (0.4, 3.5)*3.6 (−1.3, 8.5)5.1 (0.2, 10.0)6.1 (1.2, 11.0)*
    24 wk34.9 (20.6)32.5 (19.8)33.7 (20.5)32.1 (20.5)0.6 (−1.0, 2.3)1.7 (−3.4, 6.9)0.8 (−4.4, 6.0)2.4 (−2.9, 7.6)
    39 wk36.2 (21.0)32.8 (21.5)30.2 (21.7)31.6 (21.5)1.6 (−0.2, 3.3)2.8 (−2.8, 8.4)5.8 (0.5, 11.2)4.3 (−1.2, 9.9)
    52 wk36.5 (21.8)30.7 (22.4)31.9 (22.5)28.7 (20.5)2.2 (0.4, 4.0)*5.4 (−0.4, 11.1)4.6 (−1.2, 10.3)7.6 (2.0, 13.2)*
    6 to 52 wk1.7 (0.4, 3.0)*3.1 (−1.0, 7.1)5.3 (1.2, 9.3)*5.0 (0.8, 9.2)*
Functional disability (0-100 scale)
    0 wk45.2 (21.8)44.8 (24.0)46.1 (23.4)45.2 (21.8)
    6 wk27.0 (20.2)28.5 (20.3)25.8 (19.3)30.1 (20.9)0.6 (−2.3, 1.0)1.7 (−6.8, 3.4)1.5 (−3.7, 6.6)−3.1 (−8.3, 2.1)
    12 wk29.2 (23.7)24.8 (18.6)22.0 (20.7)23.4 (20.5)2.0 (0.3, 3.8)*4.2 (−1.0, 9.4)7.5 (1.7, 13.3)*5.8 (0.2, 11.3)
    18 wk26.1 (21.4)23.5 (19.4)22.1 (21.5)22.4 (19.2)1.3 (−0.4, 2.9)2.2 (−2.8, 7.2)4.1 (−1.5, 9.7)3.6 (−1.5, 8.7)
    24 wk27.1 (25.2)25.6 (21.7)24.0 (20.4)24.1 (20.3)1.1 (−0.7, 2.9)1.4 (−4.5, 7.2)3.4 (−2.4, 9.3)2.9 (−2.9, 8.8)
    39 wk26.2 (22.8)24.5 (22.6)21.7 (20.5)24.1 (22.7)0.9 (−0.9, 2.8)1.4 (−4.3, 7.1)4.7 (−0.7, 10.2)2.0 (−3.9, 7.9)
    52 wk28.0 (23.7)22.6 (22.4)22.4 (21.2)19.1 (18.7)2.7 (1.0, 4.4)*5.2 (−0.5, 10.9)5.9 (0.1, 11.8)8.8 (3.3, 14.4)*
    6 to 52 wk0.9 (−0.3, 2.2)1.5 (−2.1, 5.1)3.9 (−0.0, 7.7)2.4 (1.5, 6.3)

SMT, spinal manipulative therapy group.

Primary endpoints were prespecified as pain intensity and functional disability at 12 and 24 weeks. Unadjusted group means are from original data without imputation; slopes and group differences are computed from imputed data adjusted for the baseline covariates. Positive signs of slopes and mean differences were computed to favor higher doses of manipulation. A two-tailed test of statistical significance was pre-specified at the .025 to account for two primary outcomes and used for all statistical tests.

*P < .025
Longitudinal profile using generalized estimating equations.
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