Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
Spine J. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Jul 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Spine J. 2014 Jul 1; 14(7): 1106–1116.
Published online 2013 Oct 16. doi:  10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.468

Table 4

Secondary Outcomes

Observed unadjusted Mean (SD)
Slope (95%CI) Adjusted Mean difference (95% CI)
SMT 0SMT 6SMT 12SMT 18per 6 SMT sessionsSMT 0 vs SMT 6SMT 0 vs SMT 12SMT 0 vs SMT 18
Pain unpleasantness (0-100 scale)
    0 wk41.7 (19.5)41.1 (21.1)40.3 (22.8)42.4 (22.2)
    6 wk24.7 (21.7)20.3 (17.5)15.6 (17.3)18.4 (18.1)2.4 (0.9, 4.0)*4.2 (−0.8, 9.1)8.7 (3.5, 14.0)*6.6(1.7, 11.6)*
    12 wk29.7 (22.3)24.5 (20.6)22.2 (22.3)23.9 (21.3)2.0 (0.2, 3.7)4.8 (−1.0, 10.5)7.1 (1.1, 13.0)*5.8 (0.1, 11.5)
    18 wk26.8 (22.3)21.9 (21.2)20.4 (20.4)21.3 (21.8)1.8 (0.1, 3.6,)4.6 (−1.0, 10.3)5.8 (0.4, 11.2)5.8 (0.4, 11.2)
    24 wk27.4 (21.7)24.8 (21.8)25.0 (21.9)24.8 (22.4)0.7 (−1.1, 2.5)2.1 (−3.5, 7.8)2.0 (−3.6, 7.5)2.5 (−3.2, 8.3)
    39 wk28.3 (21.6)25.5 (21.3)23.2 (20.8)23.0 (21.1)1.8 (0.1, 3.6)2.4 (−3.3, 8.2)4.8 (−0.6, 10.3)5.4 (−0.2, 10.9)
    52 wk27.8 (22.1)22.1 (21.7)24.0 (24.0)21.5 (19.9)1.7 (−0.1, 3.5)5.4 (−0.3, 11.2)3.7 (−2.4, 9.7)6.4 (0.7, 12.1)
Days with pain (last 4 wk)
    0 wk24.8 (4.8)24.1 (5.5)23.3 (5.7)24.1 (4.6)
    6 wk18.9 (10.0)17.6 (10.6)15.0 (10.1)16.3 (10.8)0.8 (−0.0, 1.7)0.9 (−1.8, 3.5)3.0 (0.3, 5.6)2.2 (−0.6, 4.9)
    12 wk18.1 (9.5)17.4 (9.2)15.5 (9.7)14.7 (10.2)1.1 (0.2, 1.9)*0.4 (−2.0, 2.8)1.9 (−0.7, 4.5)3.0 (0.5, 5.6)*
    18 wk17.4 (10.2)17.6 (10.3)15.5 (10.3)14.9 (10.6)0.8 (−0.0, 1.7)−0.6 (−3.2, 2.1)1.2 (−1.5, 3.9)2.2 (−0.6, 4.9)
    24 wk16.9 (10.0)16.5 (10.3)15.4 (9.5)13.5 (9.6)1.0 (0.2, 1.8)*0.1 (−2.5, 2.7)0.7 (−1.8, 3.3)3.1 (0.5, 5.7)*
    39 wk17.7 (9.8)15.6 (9.9)15.1 (10.4)14.3 (10.6)0.9 (0.1, 1.7)1.7 (−0.8, 4.2)1.7 (−0.8, 4.3)3.0 (0.4, 5.6)
    52 wk17.0 (10.2)15.3 (10.3)14.0 (10.6)13.6 (10.4)1.0 (0.1, 1.8)*1.3 (−1.4, 3.9)2.1 (−0.7, 4.9)3.0 (0.3, 5.7)
Days with disability (last 4 wk)
    0 wk7.4 (8.1)6.7 (7.5)6.8 (7.5)6.5 (7.2)
    6 wk2.4 (5.5)1.6 (3.0)1.3 (2.7)1.2 (3.4)0.3 (−0.0, 0.7)0.8 (−0.4, 1.9)1.0 (−0.1, 2.2)1.1 (−0.1, 2.3)
    12 wk3.4 (5.9)2.6 (4.9)2.0 (3.3)2.3 (3.7)0.4 (−0.0, 0.7)0.6 (−0.7, 1.9)1.3 (0.0, 2.5)1.0 (−0.3, 2.2)
    18 wk2.1 (5.3)2.2 (5.0)1.8 (4.1)2.1 (4.9)0.1 (−0.4, 0.5)−0.1 (−1.4, 1.3)0.3 (−0.9, 1.6)0.0 (−1.3, 1.4)
    24 wk3.5 (6.7)2.7 (5.1)2.8 (4.6)2.8 (4.2)0.1 (−0.3, 0.6)0.7 (−0.7, 2.1)0.6 (−0.8, 2.1)0.5 (−0.9, 1.9)
    39 wk2.8 (5.1)3.0 (5.5)2.4 (4.7)2.5 (4.8)0.1 (−0.3, 0.5)−0.3 (−1.7, 1.1)0.4 (−0.9, 1.6)0.2 (−1.1, 1.5)
    52 wk3.4 (6.0)3.4 (6.9)1.9 (3.7)2.4 (4.7)0.4 (−0.1, 0.8)−0.1 (−1.7, 1.4)1.5 (0.2, 2.8)0.8 (−0.6, 2.1)
Perceived pain change (6-pt Likert)
    6 wk3.7 (0.9)4.1 (0.9)4.3 (1.0)4.3 (1.0)0.1 (0.1, 0.2)*0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)0.4 (0.2, 0.7)*0.4 (0.1, 0.7)*
    12 wk3.7 (0.9)3.8 (0.9)4.0 (1.0)4.0 (0.9)0.1 (0.0, 0.2)0.1 (−0.1, 0.4)0.3 (−0.0, 0.5)0.3 (0.0, 0.5)
    18 wk3.7 (0.9)4.0 (1.0)4.1 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)0.4 (0.1, 0.7)*0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)
    24 wk3.8 (1.0)3.9 (1.0)3.9 (1.0)3.9 (1.0)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.1 (−0.2, 0.3)
    39 wk3.7 (1.0)3.8 (1.1)4.0 (1.0)4.0 (0.9)0.1 (0.0, 0.2)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.3 (0.0, 0.6)0.3 (0.0, 0.5)
    52 wk3.7 (0.9)4.0 (1.1)3.9 (1.1)4.0 (0.9)0.1 (−0.0, 0.1)0.3 (0.0, 0.6)0.2 (−0.1, 0.5)0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)
Perceived disability change (6-pt Likert)
    6 wk3.6 (0.9)3.9 (0.9)4.0 (1.0)4.0 (0.9)0.1 (0.0, 0.2)*0.3 (0.0, 0.5)0.4 (0.1, 0.6)*0.4 (0.2, 0.6)*
    12 wk3.5 (0.9)3.8 (0.9)3.8 (1.0)3.8 (0.9)0.1 (0.0, 0.2)*0.2 (0.0, 0.5)0.3 (0.0, 0.5)0.3 (0.0, 0.5)
    18 wk3.6 (0.8)3.7 (1.0)3.8 (1.0)3.8 (0.9)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)0.1 (−0.2, 0.3)0.2 (−0.1, 0.4)0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)
    24 wk3.6 (0.9)3.7 (0.9)3.7 (0.9)3.7 (1.0)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.1 (−0.2, 0.3)0.1 (−0.2, 0.3)0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)
    39 wk3.6 (0.9)3.7 (1.0)3.9 (1.0)3.9 (0.9)0.1 (0.0, 0.2)*0.1 (−0.2, 0.4)0.3 (0.1, 0.6)*0.3 (0.0, 0.5)*
    52 wk3.6 (0.9)3.8 (1.0)3.8 (1.1)3.9 (0.9)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)0.2 (−0.0, 0.5)0.2 (−0.1, 0.5)0.3 (0.0, 0.3)
SF-12 physical health component
    0 wk43.0 (9.5)43.8 (8.9)44.3 (8.4)42.3 (8.8)
    12 wk45.5 (10.3)47.1 (8.2)49.6 (8.5)47.5 (8.5)1.0 (0.3, 1.6)*1.2 (−0.8, 3.3)3.5 (1.3, 5.7)*2.4 (0.3, 4.6)
    24 wk50.0 (11.1)50.5 (10.1)51.4 (9.1)50.9 (9.4)0.5 (−0.3, 1.2)0.0 (−2.3, 2.4)0.8 (−1.6, 3.2)1.3 (−1.1, 3.6)
    39 wk50.6 (11.5)51.1 (10.3)52.7 (9.6)51.8 (9.3)0.6 (−0.2, 1.4)0.1 (−2.3, 2.4)1.5 (−0.9, 4.0)1.6 (−0.9, 4.0)
    52 wk50.7 (12.0)50.8 (11.0)52.6 (10.3)52.5 (8.5)0.8 (0.1, 1.6)0.3 (−2.7, 2.1)1.4 (−1.2, 4.0)2.2 (−0.2, 4.5)
SF-12 mental health component
    0 wk50.2 (10.5)48.6 (10.5)47.6 (11.2)49.4 (9.6)
    12 wk50.2 (10.8)50.4 (9.4)47.8 (11.0)48.0 (9.8)−0.7 (−1.3, −0.0)1.3 (−0.7, 3.3)−0.5 (−2.6, 1.5)−1.5 (−3.5, 0.4)
    24 wk51.8 (10.9)52.8 (10.2)50.8 (11.8)51.3 (11.2)−0.1 (−0.8, 0.6)2.1 (−0.0, 4.2)0.7 (−1.3, 2.8)0.1 (−2.1, 2.2)
    39 wk51.7 (11.3)51.5 (11.6)49.2 (13.6)49.0 (11.7)−0.8 (−1.5, −0.0)1.1 (−1.3, 3.4)−0.4 (−2.9, 2.1)−2.0 (−4.3, 0.3)
    52 wk51.3 (12.0)50.4 (11.4)50.6 (12.7)50.4 (11.7)−0.0 (−0.8, 0.8)0.2 (−2.3, 2.7)1.1 (−1.6, 3.7)−0.3 (−2.9, 2.3)
EuroQol Health State (0-100 scale)
    0 wk70.1 (17.2)72.1 (13.8)73.5 (14.4)68.2 (17.4)
    12 wk73.5 (17.3)78.4 (14.1)77.9 (15.0)75.7 (14.5)0.8 (−0.4, 2.0)3.9 (0.0, 7.7)2.7 (−1.3, 6.7)3.1 (−0.8, 6.9)
    24 wk73.9 (17.5)77.8 (15.5)77.0 (15.4)74.5 (16.7)0.3 (−1.0, 1.6)2.9 (−1.0, 6.9)1.4 (−2.6, 5.5)1.5 (−2.7, 5.8)
    39 wk73.1 (20.0)76.8 (17.2)76.6 (15.6)75.3 (16.8)0.9 (−0.5, 2.3)2.6 (−1.9, 7.0)1.8 (−2.6, 6.2)3.2 (−1.3, 7.6)
    52 wk74.8 (17.0)77.1 (17.0)77.3 (15.3)77.2 (14.9)1.0 (−0.3, 2.2)1.3 (−2.7, 5.4)0.9 (−3.1, 4.9)3.3 (−0.5, 7.2)
Non-prescription medication (times in last 4 wk)
    0 wk7.6 (10.0)8.9 (10.8)9.5 (10.0)7.6 (9.4)
    6 wk4.3 (6.8)4.1 (6.9)4.0 (6.7)4.0 (8.3)0.1 (−0.5, 0.7)0.6 (−1.2, 2.4)0.9 (−0.8, 2.6)0.3 (−1.5, 2.1)
    12 wk7.8 (11.0)7.1 (23.0)5.8 (7.6)7.8 (25.8)0.1 (−1.6, 1.8)1.4 (−2.7, 5.6)3.2 (0.4, 5.9)*−0.1 (−5.5, 5.3)
    18 wk5.7 (7.4)6.0 (10.4)5.3 (9.1)5.5 (9.1)0.2 (−0.5, 0.8)0.1 (−2.4, 2.6)1.0 (−1.1, 3.2)0.2 (−1.8, 2.2)
    24 wk8.1 (13.7)7.7 (15.8)6.5 (8.6)6.4 (10.8)0.7 (−0.4, 1.7)0.9 (−3.3, 5.1)2.4 (−0.7, 5.5)1.8 (−1.5, 5.0)
    39 wk7.2 (14.2)7.4 (12.2)6.6 (8.9)7.7 (13.5)−0.0 (−1.1, 1.1)0.3 (−3.4, 4.0)1.4 (−1.9, 4.7)−0.5 (−4.0, 3.1)
    52 wk6.5 (8.0)6.6 (13.7)6.7 (9.3)6.8 (12.7)−0.1 (−0.9, 0.8)0.3 (−2.7, 3.4)0.6 (−1.5, 2.6)−0.3 (−2.9, 2.4)

SMT, spinal manipulative therapy group.

Unadjusted group means are from original data without imputation; slopes and group differences are computed from imputed data adjusted for the baseline covariates. Positive signs of slopes and mean differences were computed to favor higher doses of SMT.

*P < .025
Likert scale: much worse = 1, worse = 2, about the same = 3, better = 4, much better = 5, and completely recovered = 6.
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