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Table 1

Return to:   Dose Response and Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Cervicogenic Headache: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Baseline participant characteristics

SMT 8 visits
(n = 20)
SMT 16 visits
(n = 20)
LM 8 visits
(n = 20)
LM 16 visits
(n = 20)
All
(n = 80)
Sociodemographic information
 Age (years)38 ± 1035 ± 1237 ± 1334 ± 1036 ± 11
 Gender (female)16 (80%)16 (80%)15 (75%)17 (85%)64 (80%)
 Race (white non-Hispanic)20 (100%)18 (90%)12 (60%)18 (90%)68 (85%)
 Marital status (married)10 (50%)10 (50%)10 (50%)7 (35%)37 (46%)
 Education (college degree)9 (45%)8 (40%)6 (30%)5 (25%)28 (35%)
 Income (< $24000/yr)6 (30%)9 (45%)9 (45%)9 (45%)33 (41%)
Expectations
 Confidence in SMT *4.4 ± 1.34.0 ± 1.14.0 ± 1.54.2 ± 1.34.1 ± 1.3
 Confidence in LM *4.1 ± 1.14.0 ± 1.34.0 ± 1.14.2 ± 1.34.1 ± 1.2
 Optimal visits for SMT (4 - 20)12.4 ± 4.813.4 ± 5.111.6 ± 5.313.4 ± 4.712.7 ± 5.0
 Optimal visits for LM (4 - 20)14.4 ± 5.114.2 ± 4.613.2 ± 5.515.2 ± 5.114.3 ± 5.0
Cervicogenic headaches
 Pain intensity 51.2 ± 17.750.7 ± 16.856.8 ± 15.858.7 ± 17.154.3 ± 16.9
 Pain unpleasantness 53.0 ± 21.155.5 ± 19.658.5 ± 16.358.0 ± 18.556.3 ± 18.7
 Functional disability 47.3 ± 25.638.0 ± 19.649.3 ± 21.645.5± 24.545.0 ± 22.9
 Number (last 4 wk)14.8 ± 8.416.0 ± 7.815.8 ± 8.716.2 ± 7.015.7 ± 7.9
 Disability days (last 4 wk)5.1 ± 4.03.3 ± 3.75.2 ± 4.87.0 ± 6.95.1 ± 5.1
Other Headaches
 Number (last 4 wk)2.0 ± 2.41.5 ± 6.74.6 ± 8.95.5 ± 7.53.4 ± 6.2
 Disability days (last 4 wk)0.9 ± 1.90.8 ± 1.41.3 ± 2.32.9 ± 6.91.5 ± 3.8
Neck
 Pain intensity 53.3 ± 21.253.0 ± 22.760.5 ± 21.459.0 ± 20.856.4 ± 20.8
 Functional disability 46.3 ± 21.736.2 ± 22.648.5 ± 23.641.6 ± 22.843.2 ± 22.8
Health status
 Physical health 47.0 ± 8.847.4 ± 9.243.7 ± 9.544.7 ± 9.945.7 ± 9.3
 Mental health 45.1 ± 10.149.3 ± 8.449.1 ± 8.245.7 ± 10.647.3 ± 9.4
 Migraine sufferer (self report)6 (30%)6 (30%)5 (25%)5 (25%)22 (28%)
 Low back pain10 (50%)11 (55%)10 (50%)8 (40%)39 (49%)
 Depression screen (positive)8 (40%)8 (40%)6 (30%)7 (35%)29 (36%)
 Other comorbidity15 (75%)13 (65%)13 (65%)12 (60%)53 (66%)
Oral medication use (times in last 4 wk)
 Prescription3.9 ± 7.81.7 ± 3.61.1 ± 3.14.0 ± 7.82.6 ± 6.1
 Over-the-counter12.7 ± 11.913.1 ± 14.19.9 ± 11.79.7 ± 7.311.4 ± 11.4
 Supplements3.9 ± 12.51.8 ± 6.76.7 ± 13.79.0 ± 11.85.4 ± 11.6
 Total20.4 ± 21.316.5 ± 17.018.0 ± 20.622.7 ± 15.819.4 ± 18.6
SMT - spinal manipulative therapy
LM - light massage.
*6-point Likert scale with 1 indicating lowest confidence and 6 indicating highest confidence.
100-point scales with lower scores favorable. Pain intensity and functional disability were evaluated with the Modified von Korff pain and disability scales.
The physical and mental health component summaries of the SF-12 Health Survey are standardized scales with mean = 50 and SD = 10 in the U.S. general population; higher scores are favorable.