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Table 1

Return to:   The Effect of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Experimentally Induced Pain

Descriptive items used in a systematic critical literature review on the effect of SMT on pain

ReferenceYearAuthorsTitleLocationSettingn° of subjectsn° malesn° femalesAgesTreatment groupsHow was pain producedHow was pain measuredWhen was pain measuredDescription of study subjectsApproval ethics committee
[37]
2011
Josue Fernández-Carnero, Joshua A. Cleland and Roy La Touche Arbizu
Examination of motor and hypoalgesic effects of cervical vs thoracic spine manipulation in patients with lateral epicondyalgia: a clinical trial.
Spain
University
18?
8
9
44.8 SD, 9.2 (30–60)
- Cervical manipulation
Pressure
Electronic digital algometer
Before and after
Faculty of the Health Science
Yes
- Thoracic manipulation
[42]
2011
V. Maduro de Camargo, F. Alburquerque-Sendín, F. Bérzin, Vinicius Cobos Stefanelli, D. P. Rodrigues de Souza and C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas,
Immediate effects on electromyographic activity and pressure pain thresholds after a cervical manipulation in mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.
Brazil
University
37
21
16
18 – 42
- SMT C5-C6
Pressure
Analogue algometer
Before and after
University workers
Yes
- Control
[23]
2011
Mark D. Bishop, Jason M. Beneciuk, Steven Z. George;
Immediate reduction in temporal sensory summation after thoracic spinal manipulation.
USA
University
90
24
66
22.9 + −2.7
- SMT
T° and pressure
Algometer
Before and Immediately after
Students
No
- Cervical exercises
- Control
[28]
2010
Benjamin Soon, Annina B. Schmid, Elias J. Fridriksson, Elizabeth Gresslos, Philip Cheong and Anthony Wright;
A crossover study on the effect of cervical mobilization on motor function and pressure pain threshold in pain-free individuals.
Australia
University
24
13
11
34 +/−12
- Mobilization
Pressure
Digital algometer
Before and after
Students
Yes
- Manual contact control
- Control
[29]
2010
Oliveira-Campelo NM, Rubens-Rebelatto J, Martín-Vallejo FJ, Alburquerque-Sendí N F, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C.
The immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint manipulation and suboccipital muscle inhibition technique on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity over latent myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles.
Spain
Osteopathic school and university
122
31
91
18-30
- Manipulation
Pressure
Mechanical algometer
Before and 2 min post treatment
Students
Yes
Brazil
- Soft tissue
- Control
[44]
2010
Elaine Willett, Clair Hebron and Oliver Krouwel
The initial effects of different rates of lumbar mobilizations on pressure pain thresholds in asymptomatic subjects.
UK
University
30
8
22
33.05 (18–57)
- 2 Hz
Pressure
Electronic algometer
Base
11 naive physiotherapists 19 non naive
Yes
- 1 Hz
+ 48 h
- Quasi stable
+ 48 h
[38]
2009
P. Mansilla-Ferragut, C. Fernández-de-las Peñas, F Alburquerque-Sendin, J. A. Cleland and JJ Boscá-Gandia
Immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint
Spain
Osteopathic school
37
0
37
35 +/−8
- SMT
Pressure
Mechanical algometer
Before and after
Volunteers, general population
Yes
Manipulation on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity in women with mechanical neck pain.
- Control
[30]
2009
Oliver Thomson, Lesley Haig, Hazel Mansfield
The effects of high-velocity low-amplitude thrust manipulation and mobilization techniques on pressure pain threshold in the lumbar spine.
Sweden
Stockholm College Osteopathic
50
29
21
27
- unilateral HVLAT
Pressure
Pressure algometer
Before and after
Students
Yes
UK
School British College
- Spinal lumbar mobilization
- Sham laser procedure
[43]
2009
Oliver Krouwel , Clair Hebron, Elaine Willett
An investigation into the potential hypoalgesic effects of different amplitudes of PA mobilizations on the lumbar spine as measured by pressure pain thresholds.
UK
University
30
9
21
26,43 (SD 4,92)
- Large oscillation (force applied)
Pressure
Digital algometer
Baseline before and + 24, + 24
13/30 physiotherapy naives
Yes
- Small oscillation quasi static
[18]
2009
Joel E. Bialosky, Mark D. Bishop, Michael E. Robinson, Giorgio Zeppieri Jr, Steven Z. George
Spinal manipulative therapy has an immediate effect on thermal pain sensitivity in people with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.
USA
University
36
10
26
32.38 (12.63)
- SMT

Numerical scale
Before and Immediately after
Students with low back pain
No
- Biking
- Back extension exercise
[19]
2008
J. Fernández-Carnero, Cesar Fernández-de-las-Peñas, and Joshua A. Cleland
Immediate hypoalgesic and motor effects after a single cervical manipulation in subjects with lateral epicondyalgia.
Spain
Universities and Osteopathic school Madrid
10
5
5
42 (SD6)
- Manipulative session
T° and pressure
Electronic algometer
Before and after
Patients
Yes
USA
- Manual contact intervention
[39]
2008
C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C. Alonso-Blanco, J. A. Cleland, C. Rodriguez-Blanco and F.Alburquerque-Sendin
Changes in pressure pain thresholds over C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint after a cervicothoracic junction manipulation in healthy subjects.
Spain
Universities and Osteopathic school Madrid
30
13
17
26 (SD 5)
- Manipulative thrust right side C7-T1
Pressure
Algometer
Before and after
General population
Yes
- Manipulative thrust left side C7-T1
USA
- Sham-manual procedure
[20]
2007
M. Ruiz-Sáez, C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C. Rodriguez Blanco, R. Martinez-Segura and R. Garcia-León
Changes in pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle after a cervical spine manipulation in pain-free subjects.
Spain
Osteopathic school
72
27
46
31 (SD10)
- Manipulative
Pressure
Mechanical algometer
Baseline before 1, 5 and 10 min after
Volunteers, general population
Yes
- Sham-manual
[31]
2007
Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Pérez-de-Heredia M, Brea-Rivero M, Miangolarra-Page JC.
Immediate effects on pressure pain threshold following a single cervical spine manipulation in healthy subjects.
Spain
Universities
15
7
8
21 + −2
- Manipulation
Pressure
Mechanical algometer
Before 5 min after intervention
Students
Yes
- Placebo
3 sessions separated by 48 h
- Control
[34]
2007
Hamilton L, Boswell C, Fryer G
The effects of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation and muscle energy technique on suboccipital tenderness.
Australia
University
90
29
61
23 +/−5
- SMT (C0- C1)
Pressure
Electronic algometer
Before and after
Students
Yes
- Muscle energy technique
- Control
[36]
2006
George SZ, Bishop MD, Bialosky JE, Zeppieri G Jr, Robinson ME.
Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study.
USA
University
60
20
40
24.03(SD 3.2°
- SMT

Medoc neurosensory analyzer
Before and 5 min after
Students
Yes
- Lumbar ext exercise
- Bicycle riding
[40]
2004
P.Mohammadi, A. Gonsalves, Chris Tsai, T. Hummel and Thomas Carpenter
Areas of capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia are reduced by a single chiropractic adjustment: preliminary study.
USA
Universities
20
14
6
27 (21–37)
- SMT
Cutaneous capsaicin
Visual Analogue Scale
Before and 20 min after after
Healthy volunteers, mostly naive to SMT
Yes
Germany
- Non-SMT
[35]
2004
Fryer G, Carub J, McIver S.
The effect of manipulation and mobilization on pressure pain thresholds in the thoracic spine.
Australia
University
96
39
57
19-34
- SMT T2-T4
Pressure
Electronic algometer
Before and after
Students
Yes
- Mobilisation
- Control
[21]
2001
M. Sterling, G. Jull, A. Wright
Cervical mobilization: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity.
Canada
University
30
14
16
35.7 (SD 14.92)
- SMT
Pressure / T°
Visual Analogue Scale, electronic algometer
Before and after
Patients pain +3 months C5/6
Yes
- Placebo
- Control
[32]
1998
Bill Vicenzino, David Collins and Anthony Wright
An investigation of the Interrelationship between manipulative therapy-Induced hypoalgesia and sympathoexcitation.
Australia
University
24
11
13
49.0 (27–70)
- Mobilization C5-C6
Pressure / T°
Visual Analogue Scale, digital algometer
Before and after
Patients epicond 6.2 +/− 5.1 months
Yes
- Manual contact placebo
- Nothing
[33]
1996
Bill Vicenzino, David Collins and Anthony Wright
The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondyalgia.
Australia
University
15
7
8
44 +/−2
- Treatment
Pressure
Visual Analogue Scale digital algometer
Before and after
Patients epicond 8 +/− 2 months
Yes
- Placebo
- Control
[41]
1984
Terrett AC, Vernon H.
Manipulation and pain tolerance. A controlled study of the effect of spinal manipulation on paraspinal cutaneous pain tolerance levels.
Canada
Chiropractic college
50
?
?
28.6
- Thoracic manipulation
Electrical induction
Thresholds
Before and after
Chiropractic students
No
 - Control group 
T° = temperature.

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