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Table 3

Characteristics of cluster membership at 7-year baseline follow-up, groups 1 and 2 (n=155)

 Cluster (trajectory) from 7-year follow-up analysis
No or occasional painPersistent mild painFluctuating painPersistent severe painp Value
In cluster (%)31371121
Age (years)46.3 (43.9 to 48.6)47.7 (45.5 to 50.0)46.3 (42.1 to 50.6)47.0 (43.7 to 50.2)0.85
Female65% (51 to 80)63% (50 to 77)68% (43 to 93)63% (45 to 81)0.99
Pain intensity0.8 (0 to 1.8)2.3 (1.8 to 2.8)4.9 (3.6 to 6.3)6.7 (5.8 to 7.6)<0.001
Leg pain42% (26 to 58)51% (37 to 65)78% (54 to 100)83% (68 to 98)0.009
Upper body pain52% (36 to 68)71% (58 to 84)88% (71 to 100)93% (84 to 100)0.004
Disability2.0 (0 to 4.1)4.3 (3.0 to 5.6)8.7 (5.7 to 11.7)12.9 (10.5 to 15.3)<0.001
Anxiety5.3 (4.1 to 6.4)6.8 (5.6 to 8.0)6.5 (4.4 to 8.6)8.8 (7.3 to 10.3)0.005
Depression2.8 (1.8 to 3.8)4.9 (3.8 to 6.0)4.3 (2.8 to 5.8)7.4 (5.9 to 8.8)<0.001
PHQ-153.9 (2.6 to 5.3)5.0 (3.9 to 6.1)7.4 (4.3 to 10.4)7.7 (5.8 to 9.7)0.006
Insomnia27% (12 to 42)42% (28 to 57)75% (51 to 98)80% (65 to 96)<0.001

Figures are mean (95% CI) except for female, leg pain, upper body pain and insomnia, which are percentage (95% CI).

PHQ-15, Patient Health Questionnaire 15.

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