Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
J Electromyogr Kinesiol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 Oct 1.
Published in final edited form as:
J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012 Oct; 22(5): 785–794.
Published online 2012 Feb 19. doi:  10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.01.015

Figure 1

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Force time curves derived from high velocity, low amplitude spinal manipulations applied to humans (A & B) and to a simulation device (C). A shows the phases and relative force occurring during the maneuver. (Modified from Fig 1, Herzog W J. Bodywork & Movement Therapies 2010;14:280-6) B shows the mean force-time curves of manipulations applied to the cervical thoracic, and sacroiliac regions. Modified from Fig 9 Herzog W, et al. Spine 1993;18(9):1206-12. C shows the force-time curves of a toggle recoil manipulation performed with a left hand contact (left panel) and a right hand contact (right panel). Modified from Fig 2 Graham BA, et al. Manual Therapy 2010; 15:74-9