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Table 2

Comparison of health care costs in private health plans

Chiropractic careComparator group(s)ComparatorLowestDifferencec
First authorYearHealth care costs includedCost type N Costs n Costs
Allen [33]2014Outpatient (DC, MD, PT), medications, surgery, imaging, injections, otherPaid1672a $6,1711. MD care, 2. advice, 3. PT, 4. multiple providers13,115a $9,958Chiropractic−38 %
Grieves [29]2009Imaging, hospital, physical therapy, outpatient officeAllowed411$8511. MD primary care, 2. MD specialist care486$2,871Chiropractic−70 %
Liliedahl [32]2010All health care servicesPaid36,280$452MD care66,158$740Chiropractic−39 %
Mosley [30]1996Imaging, medications, otherPaid121$539MD care1,838$774Chiropractic−30 %
Shekelle [31]1995Hospital care, physician services, medications, outpatient services, injections, suppliesBilled412a $2641. MD primary care, 2. orthopedist, 3. internist, 4. DO, 5. other providers608a $166Comparator59 %
Smith [27]1997Not specifiedPaid97b $1,038MD care101b $3,068Chiropractic−66 %
Stano [28]1996Not specifiedPaid1,575a $518MD care4,608a $1,020Chiropractic−49 %
Stano [23]1995Outpatient (not specified)Paid2,408a $493MD care4,391a $1,000Chiropractic−51 %
Stano [24]1994Outpatient (not specified)Paid10,659$5,474MD care27,021$8,427Chiropractic−35 %
Stano [22]1993Outpatient (DC, MD, facility, other), inpatient (MD, hospital, other), and medicationsPaid1,326$2,150MD care7,144$3,127Chiropractic−31 %
Stano [25]1993Outpatient (DC, MD) and inpatient (not specified)Paid2,668a $573MD care5,212a $1,112Chiropractic−48 %
Stano [26]1993Outpatient (DC, MD) and inpatient (not specified)Paid4,156$5,747MD care6,789$8,240Chiropractic−30 %

anumber of episodes (not patients)

bminimum 3 episodes with care from same provider

creported as (−(comparator costs - chiropractic care costs)/comparator costs) × 100 %

DC doctor of chiropractic, MD medical doctor, PT physical therapy

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