Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
Man Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 Oct 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Man Ther. 2009 Oct; 14(5): 531–538.
Published online 2008 Nov 21. doi:  10.1016/j.math.2008.09.001

Figure 4

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Comprehensive model for the mechanisms of manual therapy illustrating similar neurophysiological activity in response to non- specific effects such as placebo and expectation

A limitation of the current mechanistic literature in MT is the failure to adequately account for non- specific effects such as placebo and expectation. Italicized references are examples of studies from the placebo and expectation literature which have reported similar neurophysiological effects as have been associated with MT. These similarities emphasize the potential for non- specific effects to play a significant role in the mechanisms behind MT and the need to specifically address these factors in future studies.