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Table 1

Return to:   A Regional Interdependence Model of Musculoskeletal Dysfunction

Studies with direct mention of regional interdependence
AuthorsTitle and journalRegionsDesignNumber of subjectsLevel of evidence*
Systematic reviews and meta analyses
Walser RF, Meserve BB, Boucher TR [51]The effectiveness of thoracic spine manipulation for the management of musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Man Manip Ther 2009Thoracic spine and various musculoskeletal conditionsSystematic review of cohort RCTsN/ALevel 2a

Randomized control trials and experimental studies
Bunn EA, Grindstaff TL, Hart JM, Hertel J, Ingersoll CD [103]Effects of paraspinal fatigue on lower extremity motoneuron excitability in individuals with a history of low back pain. J Electrophysiol Kinesiol 2011Lumbar spine and lower extremityCohort20Level 2b

de Oliveira Grassi D, Zanelli de Souza M, Belissa Ferrareto S, Imaculada de Lima Montebelo M, Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro E [104]Immediate and lasting improvements in weight distribution seen in baropodometry following a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust manipulation of the sacroiliac joint. Man Ther 2011Sacroiliac joint and lower extremityProspective cohort20Level 2b

Iverson CA, Sutlive TG, Crowell MS, Morrell RL, Perkins MW, Garber MB, Moore JH, Wainner RS [105]Lumbopelvic manipulation for the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: development of a clinical prediction rule. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008Lumbar spine and kneeCohort CPR50Level 2b

Mintken PE, Cleland JA, Carpenter KJ, Bieniek ML, Keirns M, Whitman JM [5]Some factors predict successful short-term outcomes in individuals with shoulder pain receiving cervicothoracic manipulation: a single-arm trial. Phys Ther 2010Cervicothoracic spine and shoulderCohort CPR80Level 2b

Strunce JB, Walker MJ, Boyles RE, Young BA [7]The immediate effects of thoracic spine and rib manipulation on subjects with primary complaints of shoulder pain. J Man Manip Ther 2009Thoracic spine and shoulderCohort21Level 2b

Case studies
Burns SA, Mintken PE, Austin GP [106]Clinical decision making in a patient with secondary hip-spine syndrome. Physiother Theory Pract 2011Hip and lumbar spineCase study1Level 4

Lowry CD, Cleland JA, Dyke K [107]Management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome using a multimodal approach: A case series. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008Knee and multiple regionsCase series5Level 4

Vaughn DW [108]Isolated knee pain: a case report highlighting regional interdependence. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008Knee and pelvisCase study1Level 4

Welsh C, Hanney WJ, Podschun L, Kolber MJ [109]Rehabilitation of a female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome: applying concepts of regional interdependence in practice. N Am J Sports Phys Ther 2010Knee and multiple regionsCase study1Level 4

Clinical commentaries

Lucado A, Kolber M, Echternach J, Cheng MS [53]Subacromial impingement syndrome and lateral epicondylalgia in tennis players. Phys Ther Rev 2010Shoulder and elbow

Isabel de-la-Llave-Rincon, A., Puentedura EJ., Fernandez-de-las-Penas C [110]Clinical presentation and manual therapy for upper quadrant musculoskeletal conditions. J Man Manip Ther 2011Upper quadrant

Reiman MP, Weisbach PC, Glynn PE [111]The hips influence on low back pain: a distal link to a proximal problem. J Sport Rehabil 2009Hip and lumbar spine

Sueki DG, Chaconas EJ [26]The effects of thoracic manipulation of shoulder function: a regional interdependence model. Phys Ther Rev 2011Thoracic spine and shoulder


Wainner RS, Whitman JM, Cleland JA, Flynn TW [1]Regional interdependence: a musculoskeletal examination model whose time has come. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007Not applicable

Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, George SZ [8]Regional interdependence: a musculoskeletal examination model whose time has come. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2008Not applicable
RCT: randomized control trial;
CPR: clinical prediction rule.

*Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Criteria:
2a, systematic review of cohort studies;
2b, individual cohort study;
3a, systematic review of case control studies;
3b, individual case control study;
4, case series.

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