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Table 2

Evidence of regional interdependence
QuarterRegionsStudyType of studyNumber of subjectsLevel of evidence *
Lower quarterHip and lumbarArab AM, Nourbakhsh MR (2010) [37] Cross-sectional cohort300Level 2b
Arab AM, Nourbakhsh MR (2010); [37] Arab et al. (2011) [40]Cohort20Level 2b
Ben-Galim P et al. (2007) [35]Prospective cohort25Level 2b
Di Lorenzo L et al. (2007) [36]Prospective cohort37Level 2b
Ellison JB et al. (1990) [112]Case–control150Level 3b
Kendall KD et al. (2010) [113]Quasi-experiment cohort20Level 2b
Mellin G (1988) [39]Case–control476Level 3b
Nadler SF et al. (2000) [114] Cohort210Level 2b
Nelson-Wong et al. (2009) [115] Prospective cohort43Level 2b
Paquet N et al. (1994) [116] Case–control20Level 3b
Stupar M et al. (2010) [34] Population-based cohort983Level 2b
van Dillen LR et al. (2008) [117] Case–control48Level 3b
Yoshimoto H et al. (2005) [118] Retrospective case–control150Level 3b
Deyle GD et al. (2005) [119] Prospecitve cohort134Level 2b
Knee and lumbarDeyle GD et al. (2000) [120] RCT of cohort83Level 2b
Stupar M et al. (2010) [34] Population-based cohort983Level 2b
Suri P et al. (2010) [121] Case–ontrol1389Level 3b
Foot/ankle and lumbarBjonness T (1975) [122] Case–control93Level 3b
Brantingham JW et al. (2006) [43] Case–control100Level 3b
Kosashvili Y et al. (2008) [42] Retrospective case–control97 279Level 3b
Hip and kneeAstephen JL et al. (2008) [90] Cross-sectional case–control181Level 3b
Bennell KL et al. (2007) [123] RCT of cohort88Level 2b
Bolgla LA et al. (2011); [45] Bolgla LA et al. (2008) [124] Cross-sectional case–control18Level 3b
Currier LL et al. (2007) [4] Cohort CPR60Level 2b
Finnoff JY et al. (2011) [46] Prospective cohort98Level 2b
Rowe J et al. (2007) [47] Case–control19Level 3b
Souza RB et al. (2009) [6] Cross-sectional case–control41Level 3b
Ankle and kneeAstephen JL et al. (2008) [90] Cross-sectional case–control181Level 3b
Molgaard C et al. (2011) [48] Case–control299Level 3b

Upper quarterThoracic and cervical spineCleland JA et al. (2005) [3] Cohort RCT36Level 2b
Cleland JA et al. (2010) [102] Cohort CPR140
Fernandez-de-las-Penas C et al. (2009) [32] Cohort45Level 2b
Gonzalez-Iglesias J et al. (2009) [33] Cohort RCT45Level 2b
Thoracic spine and shoulderBoyles RE et al. (2010) [2] Cohort56Level 2b
Mintkin PE et al. (2010) [5] Cohort CPR80Level 2b
Thoracic spine and upper extremityStrunce JB et al. (2009) [7] Cohort21Level 2b
Berglund et al. (2008) [50] Cohort62Level 2b
Cervical spine and upper extremityBerglund et al. (2008) [50] Cohort62Level 2b
Suter E et al. (2002) [52] Cohort16Level 2b
Vicenzino B et al. (1996) [125] Cohort RCT15Level 2b
Shoulder and elbowNo known experimental studies
Elbow and handNo known experimental studies

Upper and lower quarterLower extremity and shoulderKlein MG et al. (2000) [55] Cohort194Level 2b
RCT: randomized control trial;
CPR: clinical prediction rule.

*Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Criteria:
2a, systematic review of cohort studies;
2b, individual cohort study;
3a, systematic review of case control studies;
3b, individual case control study;
4, case series.

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