Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
PMC full text:
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Dec 6.
Published in final edited form as:
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 15; 38(11): 953–964.
doi:  10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182814ed5

Appendix 1

Non-Significant Bivariate Associations (P ≥ 0.10) of Baseline Variables with Lumbar Spine Surgery by One Year after Initial Claim Receipt for Occupational Back Injury*

Domain and variablesNo surgery (n=1,711)Surgery (n=174)Odds ratio^95% CIP-value
Sociodemographics
Education (ref=high school)581650.25
 Less than high school234170.640.36 – 1.12
 Vocational or some college745800.900.64 – 1.28
 College150120.640.34 – 1.23
Marital status (ref=married/living with partner)11071120.32
 Other601621.150.82 – 1.60
Employment-related
Worker’s industry (ref=trade/transportation)423400.42
 Natural resources8681.010.45 – 2.25
 Construction292441.621.02 – 2.57
 Manufacturing137130.920.48 – 1.79
 Management281271.000.59 – 1.67
 Education and health262220.930.51 – 1.68
 Hospitality230201.040.59 – 1.85
Co-worker relations (0 – 10 scale, ref=10, get along extremely well)8891010.24
 8 – 9610600.930.66 – 1.31
 0 – 7197130.610.33 – 1.12
Heavy lifting (ref=not at all/rarely/occasionally)810770.27
 Frequently526631.290.90 – 1.84
 Constantly372341.030.67 – 1.59
Whole body vibration (ref=not at all/rarely)11631080.35
 Occasionally/frequently361421.190.80 – 1.78
 Constantly184241.340.82 – 2.19
Physical demands (ref=sedentary/light)356280.22
 Medium538571.370.85 – 2.21
 Heavy407401.310.78 – 2.21
 Very heavy400491.691.02 – 2.80
Excessive amount of work (ref=strongly disagree/disagree)746730.29
 Strongly agree/agree9451011.190.86 – 1.64
Enough time to do job (ref=Strongly agree/agree)12261310.43
 Strongly disagree/disagree485430.860.60 – 1.24
Very hectic (ref=Strongly disagree/disagree)463560.28
 Agree775680.740.51 – 1.08
 Strongly agree463490.900.59 – 1.36
Supervisor listens to my work problems (ref=agree)987940.40
 Strongly disagree/disagree337361.150.76 – 1.73
 Strongly agree361421.300.88 – 1.93
Satisfaction with job (ref=Somewhat or very satisfied)14561520.70
 Not at all or not too satisfied251210.910.56 – 1.47
Job type at time of injury (ref=full-time)15481650.12
 Part-time16290.580.29 – 1.19
Seasonal job at injury (ref=no)15951650.45
 Yes11590.770.38 – 1.56
Temporary job at injury (ref=no)15991620.83
 Yes110110.930.49 – 1.78
Pain and function (all significant)
Clinical status
Previous similar back injury (ref=no)971950.59
 Yes739780.910.66 – 1.26
Number of self-reported worker’s compensation claims before current injury (ref=0)720480.13
 1498611.531.02 – 2.28
 2 – 3327441.571.01 – 2.44
 ≥ 4148191.390.78 – 2.46
Work days missed because of back, previous year (ref=0)11401220.54
 1 – 10399330.800.53 – 1.20
 > 10138140.900.50 – 1.63
Work days missed because of other health problems, previous year (ref=0)730720.39
 1 – 10835861.120.80 – 1.56
 > 10106151.530.84 – 2.80
Number other major medical problems (ref=0)14541390.36
 ≥ 1255351.210.80 – 1.83
Current health aside from injury (ref=excellent)331360.84
 Very good608630.970.63 – 1.49
 Good553560.920.59 – 1.44
 Fair/poor216190.890.49 – 1.59
General health, year prior to injury (ref=excellent)380510.15
 Very good625590.690.46 – 1.03
 Good524450.630.41 – 0.96
 Fair/poor179190.830.47 – 1.46
Health care
Health insurance (ref=yes)11541210.96
 No555520.990.70 – 1.40
Health behavior
Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-12201240.56
Consumption (AUDIT-C)53 ^^ (ref=negative, AUDIT-C score of 0 – 3 for males, 0 – 2 for females)
 Positive (4 – 12 for males, 3 – 12 for females)481501.110.78 – 1.58
Baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) (ref=<25)521380.13
 25 – 29 (overweight)660721.320.87 – 2.00
 ≥ 30 (obese)489621.541.01 – 2.37
Psychological (all significant)

ref = reference group

*Missing, “don’t know,” and refusal responses for each variable were combined into one response for each variable as needed. They were not included in analyses. The following variables had missing responses: education (n=1), marital status (3), co-worker relations (15), heavy lifting (3), whole body vibration (3), physical demands (10), excessive amount of work (20), very hectic (11), supervisor listens to my work problems (28), satisfaction with job (5), job type at time of injury (1), seasonal job at injury (1), temporary job at injury (3), previous similar back injury (2), number of self-reported worker’s compensation claims before current injury (20), work days missed because of back in the previous year (39), work days missed because of other health problems in the previous year (41), other major medical problems (2), current health aside from injury (3), general health in year before injury (3), health insurance (3), AUDIT-C (10), and baseline BMI (43)
^Adjusted for age and gender
Obtained from DLI database
Derived from standard industrial codes (SIC)
^^The AUDIT-C score is a screening test for problematic alcohol usage
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