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Table 1

Return to:   Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with
Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines

Baseline Demographic, Psychosocial, and Injury Characteristics of Study Participants

Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines That Advise Against Early MRI for Patients without “Red Flags”
Nonadherent (= 336)Adherent (= 1434)Sig.
Age (at injury)
 Under 24 years24 (7.1)166 (11.6)0.015
 25–34 years75 (22.3)384 (26.8)
 35–44 years117 (34.8)419 (29.2)
 45–54 years89 (26.5)319 (22.2)
 Over 55 years31 (9.2)146 (10.2)

Sex
 Female91 (27.1)477 (33.3)0.029
 Male245 (72.9)957 (66.7)

Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white253 (75.3)976 (68.1)0.060
 Non-Hispanic non-white33 (9.8)205 (14.3)
 Hispanic non-white31 (9.2)170 (11.9)
 Hispanic white11 (3.3)36 (2.5)

Education
 Less than high school44 (13.1)191 (13.3)0.299
 High school diploma/GED126 (37.5)476 (33.2)
 Some college146 (43.5)636 (44.4)
 College degree20 (6.0)130 (9.1)

Household income ($)
  <30,000116 (34.5)591 (41.2)0.074
 30–45,00088 (26.2)351 (24.5)
45–70,00088 (26.2)311 (21.7)
  >70,00036 (10.7)126 (8.8)

Marital status
 Married177 (52.7)727 (50.7)0.132
 Living with partner48 (14.3)203 (14.2)
 Divorced73 (21.7)265 (18.5)
 Other38 (11.3)236 (16.5)

Body mass index
 Normal <2586 (25.6)444 (31.0)0.088
 Overweight 25–29133 (39.6)550 (38.4)
 Obese 30–3479 (23.5)283 (19.7)
 Very obese >3434 (10.1)119 (8.3)

Health in year before injury
 Excellent87 (25.9)324 (22.6)0.485
 Very good113 (33.6)523 (36.5)
 Good96 (28.6)435 (30.3)
 Fair/poor40 (11.9)149 (10.4)

Health status at time of interview
 Excellent67 (19.9)282 (19.7)0.187
 Very good110 (32.7)521 (36.3)
 Good110 (32.7)454 (31.7)
 Fair/poor47 (14.0)176 (12.3)

Roland-Morris score (0–24)
 Low (0–6)13 (3.9)409 (28.5)<0.001
 Moderate (7–12)43 (12.8)331 (23.1)
 High (13–18)112 (33.3)400 (27.9)
 Very high (19–24)168 (50.0)294 (20.5)

Pain intensity (0–10)
 Low/no pain (0–3)35 (10.4)406 (28.3)<0.001
 Mild pain (4–6)110 (32.7)563 (39.3)
 Moderate/high pain (7–10)191 (56.8)462 (32.2)

Injury severity
 Mild sprain/strain and/or minor physical exam findings99 (29.6)905 (63.5)<0.001
 Major sprain/strain evidenced by substantial immobility72 (21.6)305 (21.4)
 Evidence of radiculopathy163 (48.8)216 (15.1)

SF36 Mental health score
 2 SD below population mean82 (24.4)174 (12.1)<0.001
 1-2 SD below population mean95 (28.3)285 (19.9)
 1 SD below population mean93 (27.7)351 (24.5)
 At or above population mean66 (19.6)622 (43.4)

Catastrophizing (0–4)
 Low (<1)39 (11.6)373 (26.0)<0.001
 Moderate (1–2.9)173 (51.5)781 (54.5)
 High (3–4)124 (36.9)280 (19.5)

Work fear-avoidance (0–6)
 Low (0–2.9)30 (8.9)324 (22.6)<0.001
 Moderate (3–4.9)87 (25.9)486 (33.9)
 High (5–5.9)133 (39.6)398 (27.8)
 Very high (6)86 (25.6)226 (15.8)

Offered job accommodation for disability
 Yes118 (35.1)689 (48.0)<0.001
 No211 (62.8)729 (50.8)

1 +  previous compensable back claims
 Yes82 (24.4)259 (18.1)0.011
 No254 (75.6)1,165 (81.2)

Job satisfaction
 Not at all15 (4.5)86 (6.0)0.689
 Not too satisfied29 (8.6)128 (8.9)
 Somewhat satisfied144 (42.9)593 (41.4)
 Very satisfied148 (44.0)623 (43.4)

Industry
 Trade/transportation79 (23.5)355 (24.8)0.109
 Natural resources10 (3.0)75 (5.2)
 Construction69 (20.5)250 (17.4)
 Manufacturing36 (10.7)104 (7.3)
 Management57 (17.0)229 (16.0)
 Education/health45 (13.4)227 (15.8)
 Hospitality40 (11.9)194 (13.5)

Physical demands at work
 Light53 (15.8)296 (20.6)0.014
 Medium101 (30.1)460 (32.1)
 Heavy78 (23.2)348 (24.3)
 Very heavy100 (29.8)324 (22.6)

Type of first medical visit
 Primary care164 (48.8)622 (43.4)<0.001
 Occupational medicine17 (5.1)39 (2.7)
 Chiropractor66 (19.6)474 (33.1)
 Surgeon11 (3.3)25 (1.7)
 Emergency room/clinic71 (21.1)250 (17.4)
 Other7 (2.1)24 (1.7)
Nonadherent group reflects workers who received an MRI within the first 6 weeks of injury.
Adherent group reflects workers who received an MRI after the first 6 weeks of injury (N = 255)
or did not receive an MRI at all (N = 1,179).

Frequency counts do not always sum to total because of missing responses or rounding.

Values are N (%) and significance values indicate results from chi-squared tests.