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Table 1

Return to:   A Narrative Review of Lumbar Fusion Surgery
With Relevance to Chiropractic Practice

Level of Evidence Recommendation Gradesa

GradeDefinition
AGood evidence: 2 or more Level I studies with consistent findings
BFair evidence: single Level I study or multiple Level II or III studies with consistent findings
CPoor evidence: single Level II study of multiple Level IV or V studies.
IInsufficient evidence for recommendation: single level III, IV, or V study; studies of equivalent strength with conflicting findings/conclusions
aData from Kaiser et al.13