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Table 1

Return to:   Whiplash-associated Disorders:
Who Gets Depressed? Who Stays Depressed?

Course of depressive symptoms

Course of depressive symptomsDescriptiona
No depressive symptomsNo CES-D scores ≥16 (at baseline or at any follow-up point)
Early depressive symptoms which resolveCES-D score ≥16 at baseline, but resolves to <16 at a follow-up point with all subsequent scores <16
Early depressive symptoms with recurrenceCES-D score ≥16 at baseline; resolves to <16 at a follow-up point; subsequently increases to ≥16
Early depressive symptoms, persistentCES-D score ≥16 at baseline, and all follow-up scores ≥16 (required 2 positive depression scores)
Later onset depressive symptomsCES-D score <16 at baseline, but ≥16 at one or more subsequent follow-up points
aCES-D refers to the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Baseline refers to time of the injury claim, and was within 6 weeks after the crash