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Table 2

Characteristics of claimants in each course of depressive symptoms

FactorNever depressed (n = 1,667)Depressive symptoms with resolution (n = 894)Recurrent depressive symptoms (n = 344)Persistent depressive symptoms (n = 162)Late onset of depressive symptoms (n = 385)
Age: mean (SD)a396 (15.1)37.7 (15.3)40.2 (14.0)45.2 (15.6)43.3 (15.8)
Sex: n (%)
 Male844 (32.6)244 (27.3)94 (27.3)58 (35.8)122 (31.2)
 Female1,123 (67.4)650 (72.7)250 (72.7)104 (64.2)263 (68.3)
% Body in painb mean (SD)18.7 (13.0)26.2 (16.1)27.2 (17.8)31.9 (19.4)22.0 (14.7)
Pain intensityc mean (SD)
 Neck/shoulder5.8 (2.0)6.7 (2.0)7.1 (2.1)7.6 (1.8)6.4 (2.0)
 Low back2.8 (3.1)3.9 (3.5)4.5 (3.6)5.7 (3.4)5.0 (3.1)
 Headache4.1 (3.2)5.4 (3.2)6.2 (3.1)7.0 (2.7)5.0 (3.1)
CES-D score at baseline: mean (SD)6.7 (4.5)25.0 (7.4)26.9 (8.9)33.1 (9.9)9.0 (4.5)
Education: n (%)
 Less than high school266 (16.0)182 (20.4)82 (23.9)58 (35.8)101 (26.2)
 High school266 (16.0)182 (20.2)82 (23.9)58 (35.8)101 (26.2)
 Technical school or some university720 (44.4)385 (43.1)123 (27.0)49 (30.2)137 (35.6)
 University graduate263 (15.8)91 (10.2)42 (12.2)17 (10.5)56 (14.5)
Marital status: n (%)
 Single456 (27.4)317 (35.5)90 (26.2)39 (24.1)87 (22.6)
 Married/common law1,039 (62.3)484 (54.2)203 (59.0)83 (51.2)229 (59.5)
 Widowed44 (2.6)22 (2.5)8 (2.3)5 (3.1)25 (6.5)
 Separated/divorced128 (7.7)70 (7.8)43 (12.5)35 (21.6)44 (11.4)
Family income: n (%)
 $0–20,000322 (19.7)260 (29.7)105 (31.4)70 (43.8)105 (28.0)
 $20,001–40,000506 (31.0)297 (33.9)113 (33.8)51 (31.9)137 (36.5)
 $40,001–60,000429 (26.3)182 (20.8)71 (21.3)26 (16.3)79 (21.1)
 +$60,000375 (23.0)137 (15.6)45 (13.5)13 (8.1)54 (14.4)
N = 3,452 participating in all five follow-ups

aSD refers to standard deviation

bPercentage of body in pain measured on a pain drawing

cPain intensity measured on an 11-point numerical rating scale