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Table 3

Factors associated with initial post-crash depressive symptomatology

FactorUnivariable odds ratios (95% CI) N = 5,845Multivariable odds ratiosa (95% CI) N = 5,531
Age group
 18–23 (years)1.001.00
 24–29 (years)1.01 (0.85–1.21)1.09 (0.88–1.35)
 30–390.96 (0.82–1.11)1.00 (0.83–1.21)
 40–490.82 (0.70–0.96)0.92 (0.74–1.12)
 50 and older0.80 (0.69–0.94)0.80 (0.640.99)
Female gender1.21 (1.08–1.34)1.13 (0.99–1.30)
Annual family incomeb
 Less than $20,0001.001.00
 $20,000–39,9990.68 (0.59–0.77)0.77 (0.530.77)
 $40,000–59,9990.50 (0.43–0.58)0.64 (0.530.77)
 $60,000 or more0.42 (0.36–0.50)0.62 (0.510.76)
Education
 <High school1.001.00
 High school0.82 (0.70–0.95)0.92 (0.77–1.11)
 Technical school or some university0.77 (0.67–0.88)0.84 (0.71–1.002)
 University degree0.55 (0.46–0.66)0.70 (0.560.88)
Direction of impact
 Frontal impact1.001.00
 Rear impact0.62 (0.55–0.71)0.74 (0.630.86)
 Side impact1.05 (0.92–1.21)0.99 (0.84–1.16)
 Other1.18 (0.92–1.52)1.09 (0.81–1.47)
% of body in painc1.03 (1.03–1.04)1.01 (1.001.01)
Neck pain intensityd1.29 (1.25–1.32)1.16 (1.121.20)
Low back pain intensityd1.13 (1.11–1.15)1.05 (1.031.07)
Numbness, tingling in arms and handse1.92 (1.73–2.14)1.16 (1.021.33)
Felt dizzy after collisione2.93 (2.63–3.26)1.61 (1.411.83)
Vision problems after collisione3.07 (2.58–3.65)1.56 (1.261.93)
Hearing problems after collisione3.08 (2.40–3.95)1.24 (0.92–1.68)
Felt anxious after collisione4.58 (4.10–5.12)3.32 (2.933.76)
Fractured bone in collision
 No1.001.00
 Yes1.75 (1.34–2.29)1.65 (1.192.29)
 Uncertain2.01 (1.50–2.71)1.23 (0.87–1.75)
Prior musculoskeletal pain
 No1.001.00
 Yes, mild0.83 (0.73–0.93)0.77 (0.660.90)
 Yes, moderate to severe1.23 (1.05–1.43)0.92 (0.75–1.13)
Prior headaches
 No1.001.00
 Yes, mild0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.86 (0.740.99)
 Yes, moderate to severe1.34 (1.13–1.58)0.94 (0.76–1.17)
Prior GI problems
 No1.001.00
 Yes, mild1.19 (1.00–1.42)1.13 (0.91–1.39)
 Yes, moderate to severe1.79 (1.41–2.28)1.32 (0.99–1.78)
Prior mental health problems
 No1.001.00
 Yes, mild2.09 (1.71–2.55)1.50 (1.191.90)
 Yes, moderate to severe5.61 (3.90–8.07)3.99 (2.586.19)
Prior general health
 Excellent1.001.00
 Very good1.08 (0.95–1.22)1.17 (1.011.36)
 Good1.29 (1.12–1.48)1.34 (1.111.61)
 Fair or poorf1.86 (1.50–2.32)1.32 (0.99–1.78)

Bolded ORs are significant at p < 0.05

aDepressive symptomatology as assessed by the CES-D within 6 weeks after the crash. “Depressed” refers to CES-D score of 16 or above

bLog likelihood of the multivariable model = − 3,072.14. Pseudo R2 = 0.19. N = 5,531 in the multivariable analysis because of missing data for some factors

cAnnual family income in Canadian dollars

dPercent of body in pain calculated using a pain drawing. Estimate of effect is reported for each percentage point increase

eNeck and low back pain intensity measured on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Estimate of effect is reported for each one point increase in this scale

fSelf-reported symptoms with response options of “yes” or “no”

gCategories “fair” and “poor” prior health combined because of small cell sizes