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Table 4

Personal, pre-crash, and crash-related factors associated with course of depressive symptomatology during the year post-crash

FactorCourse of depressive symptoms
Resolution of depressive symptoms OR (95% CI)Resolution with recurrence OR (95% CI)Persistent depressive symptoms OR (95% CI)Later onset of depressive symptoms OR (95% CI)
Age group (years)
 18–231.001.001.001.00
 24–291.01 (0.73–1.41)1.13 (0.67–1.88)2.45 (1.115.42)1.40 (0.85–2.31)
 30–390.96 (0.71–1.30)1.70 (1.092.64)2.41 (1.173.98)2.19 (1.413.40)
 40–490.89 (0.65–1.23)1.94 (1.233.05)2.80 (1.335.88)2.46 (1.573.84)
 ≥500.71 (0.520.98)1.17 (0.73–1.88)1.99 (1.476.11)1.95 (1.253.06)
Female gender1.15 (0.93–1.42)1.05 (0.78–1.42)0.63 (0.420.95)0.85 (0.66–1.11)
Education
 <Grade 121.001.001.001.00
 High School0.85 (0.63–1.14)0.78 (0.53–1.15)0.69 (0.41–1.18)0.70 (0.49–1.01)
 Technical college or some university0.77 (0.58–1.01)0.55 (0.380.80)0.42 (0.250.70)0.59 (0.420.83)
 University graduate0.59 (0.410.85)0.63 (0.39–1.02)0.49 (0.240.99)0.74 (0.49–1.12)
Income
 <$20K1.001.001.001.00
 $20–39K0.78 (0.611.00)0.62 (0.44.87)0.46 (0.290.73)0.71 (0.520.98)
 $40–59K0.60 (0.450.79)0.48 (0.330.71)0.35 (0.200.62)0.48 (0.330.78)
 $60K and above0.59 (0.430.80)0.41 (0.260.64)0.22 (0.110.45)0.40 (0.260.60)
Direction of impact
 Frontal1.001.001.001.00
 Rear0.65 (0.510.82)0.78 (0.56–1.07)0.74 (0.46–1.19)1.01 (0.75–1.36)
 Side0.84 (0.66–1.08)0.85 (0.60–1.20)0.84 (0.51–1.39)0.80 (0.57––1.13)
 Other1.00 (0.64–1.56)0.75 (0.38–1.50)1.03 (0.42–2.51)0.73 (0.36–1.49)
% of body in paina1.01 (1.011.02)1.01 (1.00–1.02)1.02 (1.001.03)1.01 (1.00–1.012)
Neck pain intensityb1.16 (1.101.22)1.24 (1.151.33)1.30 (1.171.45)1.08 (1.021.15)
Low back pain intensity b1.03 (1.00–1.06)1.08 (1.041.13)1.15 (1.081.22)1.06 (1.021.10)
Dizziness1.92 (1.572.35)1.63 (1.232.17)3.65 (2.375.61)1.31 (1.011.72)
Vision problems1.49 (1.062.10)1.75 (1.432.67)1.32 (0.76–2.29)1.23 (0.78–1.94)
Hearing problems1.54 (0.93–2.57)1.88 (1.033.42)2.89 (1.475.67)1.99 (1.083.67)
Numbness, tingling in arms and hands1.10 (0.90–1.36)1.71 (1.292.26)1.37 (0.91–2.06)0.91 (0.70–1.19)
Anxiety3.92 (3.224.76)3.57 2.714.70)3.17 (2.124.75)1.66 (1.282.15)
Fracture
 No1.001.001.001.00
 Yes2.31 (1.443.69)1.33 (0.65–2.73)1.42 (0.56–3.62)1.19 (0.57–2.50)
 Uncertain1.16 (0.66–2.04)1.20 (0.60–2.41)1.47 (0.60–3.60)1.31 (0.66–2.62)
Prior MSK pain
 No1.001.001.001.00
 Mild0.76 (0.600.96)0.67 (0.480.92)0.73 (0.46–1.17)0.98 (0.74–1.30)
 Severe0.94 (0.68–1.30)0.93 (0.61–1.42)1.18 (0.69–2.04)1.21 (0.84–1.76)
Prior headaches
 No1.001.001.001.00
 Mild1.02 (0.82–1.27)1.01 (0.81–1.50)0.90 (0.57–1.41)1.25 (0.95–1.65)
 Severe1.16 (0.82–1.63)1.66 (1.092.53)1.16 (0.63–2.13)1.66 (1.11-2.47)
Prior GI problems
 No1.001.001.001.00
 Mild1.15 (0.84–1.59)1.17 (0.77–1.80)1.32 (0.74–2.38)1.06 (0.71–1.56)
 Severe0.87 (0.53–1.41)1.55 (0.90–2.68)1.74 (0.89–3.41)0.80 (0.44–1.44)
Prior mental health problems
 No
 Mild1.62 (1.222.34)2.27 (1.453.57)3.28 (1.855.82)1.78 (1.152.75)
 Severe3.38 (1.547.42)6.26 (2.6714.69)16.78 (6.7341.83)2.11 (0.78–5.70)
Prior general health
 Excellent1.001.001.001.00
 Very good0.98 (0.78–1.22)1.30 (0.94–1.80)1.61 (0.93–2.80)1.29 (0.95–1.75)
 Good1.44 (1.091.91)1.49 (1.00–2.23)3.81 (2.146.80)2.01 (1.412.87)
 Fair to poor1.16 (0.71–1.89)1.60 (0.88–2.91)2.44 (1.095.47)1.90 (1.093.30)

Reference group is “no depressive symptomatology” during the 1-year study period. Depressive symptoms measured by the CES-D, using a cut-off score of 16 or above to indicate depressive symptomatology. Resolution refers to initial depressive symptoms (measured on the baseline questionnaire administered within 6 weeks of crash) which resolve without recurrence. Recurrent refers to initial depressive symptoms which resolve but recur at some point during the study period. Persistent refers to initial depressive symptoms which are persistent (never resolve). Late onset refers to depressive symptomatology at follow-up in those with no initial depressive symptomatology

All odds ratios and confidence intervals reflect the results of the multivariable model. Number included in the multivariable model was 3,314 rather than 3,452 due to missing data in factors included in the model. Log-likelihood of the multivariable model was −3,700.7904; pseudo R2 = 0.1516

Bolded ORs are significant at p < 0.05

aPercentage of body pain as determined from a pain drawing

bNeck pain and low back pain intensity assessed using an 11-point numerical rating scale