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Table 6

Clinical outcomes reported and/or expected after treatment with Functional Neurological according to four sources in a scoping review

Sources of informationConditionsEarly clinical outcomesClinical outcomes with unspecified time frameLong-term clinical outcomes
BookChapter 19 p.332–341Complex regional pain syndromeAt 12 weeks, full recovery of function, persistence of bouts of pain
Migraines and vertigoLess frequent migraines, resolution of vertigo
ADHDAt 12 weeks, improvement of concentration, reading ability and other academic abilities Further improvement is expected.
DepressionAt 12 weeks, improvement of depressive state Further improvement is expected with continued treatment.
Low back pain with spinal root compressionAt 12 weeks, pain free, but persistent episodes of numbness
Post manipulative therapy symptomsAt 12 weeks, resolution of imbalance and headaches, reduction of the other symptoms including confusion Further improvement or even resolution is expected with continued treatment.

ArticlesPedro (2005) [41]Landau-Kleffner syndrome (case report)At 12 weeks, improvement of language, auditory and motor skills
Beck (2009) [42]Complex regional pain syndrome (case report)At 12 weeks, full recovery of function, but persistence of bouts of painAt 1 year, functional recovery is maintained, episodes of pain are reported.
Bova (2013) [43]Cervical dystonia (case report)Functional improvement, decrease of spasmodic torticollis
Kuhn (2013) [44]Migraines, ADHD, OCD, Tourette’s syndrome (case report)At 19 weeks, migraines were gone, tics and, learning and behavioral capacities were improved
Hirsh (2013) [46]ADHD, primary nocturnal enuresis, and musculoskeletal pain (case report)At 18 weeks, improvement of behavior, confidence, and posture
No more difficulty in daytime urinary control
At 3 months, occasional bed wetting and improvements in various activities of daily living
Esposito (2013) [48]Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury (case report)At 10 weeks, improvement of balance, cognitive abilities, mood, and anxiety
Decrease of the number and severity of physical complaints
Bova (2014) [45]Parkinson’s disease (case report)At 2 months, improvement of posture, function and well-beingAt 10 months, treatment is continued twice per week for maintenance care with stable results.
NB: Relapse was observed when treatment was reduced to once per week.
Bova (2014) [40]Idiopathic paresthesia (case report)At 2 weeks, symptom free after 2 visits
Traster (2014) [47]Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury (case report)At 3 months, recovery of vibration sense, free of dysesthesia, and improvement of balance and gait

WebsitesWebsite 1Unspecified Relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)
Symptoms related to traumatic brain injury Resolution
Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and ADD / ADHD Improvement
Website 2Unspecified Relief of patient’s symptom(s)
Website 3Unspecified Significant relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)
Migraines, and Post-concussion symptoms Resolution
Website 4Unspecified Relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)
Website 5Unspecified Profound relief or resolution of patient’s symptom(s)

InterviewsInformant 1Most of the conditions Improvements of patient’s symptom(s), usually after 2 to 3 visits
Vertigo “Good”, usually after 2 to 3 visits
Tinnitus Less constant, usually after 2 to 3 visits
Informant 2Most of the conditions “Good”, usually after 2 to 3 weeks of treatment
Neurodegenerative diseases, tremor disorders, high “fatigability” of the nervous system Less constant and longer to observe
Informant 3Reversible or “functional” conditions (e.g. vertigo, balance issues, headaches)“Good”, and potentially stable, after 3 to 4 visits
Irreversible conditionsResults concerning some of the symptom(s) of the patient’s pathology, take longer to achieve, and stable with maintenance care.
Informant 4Most of the conditions Improvement, usually transitory, of some of the patient’s symptom(s)
Any pediatric conditions (e.g. ADD, cerebral palsy), and post-stroke symptoms, and chronic musculoskeletal disordersResults are better than those described for the other conditions in adults. For children, results are also more stable.
Expected clinical outcomes are reported in italic

ADD/ADHD Attention deficit disorder/Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

OCD Obsessive compulsive disorders