PROPOSED CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION OF WHIPLASH-ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
GradeClinical Presentation
0No complaint about the neck
No physical sign(s)



INeck complaint of pain, stiffness or tenderness only
No physical sign(s)
IINeck complaint
AND
- Musculoskeletal sign(s)a
IIINeck complaint
AND
- Neurological sign(s)b



IVNeck complaint
AND
- Fracture or dislocation

a Musculoskeletal signs include decreased range of motion and point tenderness.
b Neurologic signs include decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, weakness, and sensory deficits.

Symptoms and disorders that can be manifest in all grades include deafness, dizziness, tinnitus, headache, memory loss, dysphagia and temporomandibular joint pain.

Dotted lines indicate limits of terms of reference of Task Force