Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2000 (Jul); 40 (4): 291–308
Kobla HV, Volpe SL
University of Massachusetts,
Dept. of Nutrition,
Amherst 01003-1420, USA
Chromium is an essential trace element involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins mainly by increasing the efficiency of insulin. Chromium deficiency affects the maintenance of normal glucose tolerance and healthy lipid profiles. The Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake for chromium is 50 to 200 microg/d for adults. However, the dietary intake of chromium in humans is often suboptimal. Chromium assessment has proven to be a challenge due to the low amounts of chromium present in biological materials and the absence of a reliable indicator of chromium status. Recently, chromium has been touted as an agent for increasing lean body mass and decreasing percent body fat. This article reviews the various studies that have been conducted to investigate the relationship of chromium with exercise and body composition.