Effects on Skeletal Muscle Fibres of Diabetes and Ginkgo biloba Extract Treatment

Effects on Skeletal Muscle Fibres of Diabetes
and Ginkgo biloba Extract Treatment

This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
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FROM:   Acta Histochem 1999 (Feb);   101 (1):   53–69

Punkt K, Psinia I, Welt K, Barth W, Asmussen G

Institute of Anatomy,
University of Leipzig, Germany

Combined cytophotometric and morphometric analysis of muscle fibre properties and myosin heavy chain electrophoresis were performed on extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from healthy rats and rats with streptozotocin–induced diabetes. Moreover, the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract, a potent oxygen radical scavenger, on diabetic muscles was investigated. Changes in fibre type–related enzyme activities, fibre type distribution, fibre cross areas and myosin isoforms were found. In muscles of diabetic rats, a metabolic shift was measured mainly in fibres with oxidative metabolism. Fast–oxidative glycolytic fibres showed a shift to more glycolytic metabolism and about a third transformed into fast–glycolytic fibres. Slow–oxidative fibres became more oxidative. Fibre atrophy was measured in diabetic muscles dependent on fibre type and muscle. Different fibre types atrophied to a different degree. Therefore, a decreased area percentage of slow fibres and an increased area percentage of fast fibres of the whole muscle cross section in both muscles were found. This is supported by reduced slow and increased fast myosin heavy chain isoforms. These alterations of diabetic muscle fibres could be due to less motion of diabetic rats and diabetic neuropathy. After treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract, enzyme activities were increased mainly in oxidative fibres of diabetic muscles, which was interpreted as protective effect. Generally, the soleus muscle with predominant oxidative metabolism was more vulnerable to diabetic alterations and Ginkgo biloba extract treatment than the extensor digitorum longus muscle with predominant glycolytic metabolism.

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