Arthritis Res Ther 2007 (Aug 8); 9 (4): R76
Tiku ML, Narla H, Jain M, Yalamanchili P
Department of Medicine,
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey,
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School,
One Robert Wood Johnson Place,
New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA.
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large segment of the aging population and is a major cause of pain and disability. At present, there is no specific treatment available to prevent or retard the cartilage destruction that occurs in OA. Recently, glucosamine sulfate has received attention as a putative agent that may retard cartilage degradation in OA. The precise mechanism of action of glucosamine is not known. We investigated the effect of glucosamine in an in vitro model of cartilage collagen degradation in which collagen degradation induced by activated chondrocytes is mediated by lipid peroxidation reaction. Lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes was measured by conjugated diene formation. Protein oxidation and aldehydic adduct formation were studied by immunoblot assays. Antioxidant effect of glucosamine was also tested on malondialdehyde (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) formation on purified lipoprotein oxidation for comparison. Glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride in millimolar (0.1 to 50) concentrations specifically and significantly inhibited collagen degradation induced by calcium ionophore-activated chondrocytes. Glucosamine hydrochloride did not inhibit lipid peroxidation reaction in either activated chondrocytes or in copper-induced oxidation of purified lipoproteins as measured by conjugated diene formation. Glucosamine hydrochloride, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited malondialdehyde (TBARS) formation by oxidized lipoproteins. Moreover, we show that glucosamine hydrochloride prevents lipoprotein protein oxidation and inhibits malondialdehyde adduct formation in chondrocyte cell matrix, suggesting that it inhibits advanced lipoxidation reactions. Together, the data suggest that the mechanism of decreasing collagen degradation in this in vitro model system by glucosamine may be mediated by the inhibition of advanced lipoxidation reaction, preventing the oxidation and loss of collagen matrix from labeled chondrocyte matrix. Further studies are needed to relate these in vitro findings to the retardation of cartilage degradation reported in OA trials investigating glucosamine.