Eur J Nutr. 2010 (Mar); 49 (2): 111–1117
Gylling H, Hallikainen M, Nissinen MJ, Simonen P, Miettinen TA
Department of Clinical Nutrition,
University of Kuopio,
BACKGROUND: Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored.
AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols.
METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41-73) consumed a test diet without (control, n = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet. Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption.
RESULTS: When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% (P < 0.01 for both). Synthesis marker lathosterol was increased by 30%, while absorption markers decreased up to 62% when compared with controls (P < 0.001 for both). Serum plant stanols increased slightly, but significantly compared with controls (serum sitostanol during intervention, controls: 16 +/- 1 microg/dL, staest: 37 +/- 2 microg/dL, serum campestanol during intervention, controls: 0.5 +/- 0 microg/dL, staest: 9 +/- 1 microg/dL, P < 0.001 for both). Changes in serum cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: Serum plant stanol levels remained at comparable low levels as in studies with daily intake of 2-3 g, and were normalized in 4 weeks suggesting that daily intake of 8.8 g of plant stanols might not increase systemic availability of plant stanols, but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels.