Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol Induces p27(Kip1)-dependent Cell-cycle Arrest In Pancreatic Cancer Cells Via An E2F-1-dependent Mechanism
 
   

Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol Induces
p27(Kip1)-dependent Cell-cycle Arrest
In Pancreatic Cancer Cells Via
An E2F-1-dependent Mechanism

This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:
   Frankp@chiro.org
 
   

FROM:   PLoS One 2013 (Feb 5);   8 (2):   e52526 ~ FULL TEXT

Fallahi B, Beiki D, Abedi SM, Saghari M, Fard-Esfahani A, Akhzari F, Mokarami B, Eftekhari M.

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology,
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute,
Tampa, Florida, United States of America.


Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol has been shown to have antitumor activity, but the precise molecular mechanism by which it inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol exerted significant cell growth inhibition pancreatic ductal cancer (PDCA) cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell growth. We also showed that δ-tocotrienol-induced growth inhibition occurred concomitantly with G(1) cell-cycle arrest and increased p27(Kip1) nuclear accumulation. This finding is significant considering that loss of nuclear p27(Kip1) expression is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in PDCA. Furthermore, δ-tocotrienol inactivated RAF-MEK-ERK signaling, a pathway known to suppress p27(Kip1) expression. To determine whether p27(Kip1) induction is required for δ-tocotrienol inhibition of PDCA cell proliferation, we stably silenced the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip1), in MIAPaCa-2 PDCA cells and demonstrated that p27(Kip1) silencing suppressed cell-cycle arrest induced by δ-tocotrienol. Furthermore, δ-tocotrienol induced p27(Kip1) mRNA expression but not its protein degradation. p27(Kip1) gene promoter activity was induced by δ-tocotrienol through the promoter's E2F-1 binding site, and this activity was attenuated by E2F-1 depletion using E2F-1 small interfering RNA. Finally, decreased proliferation, mediated by Ki67 and p27(Kip1) expression by δ-tocotrienol, was confirmed in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft pancreatic cancer model. Our findings reveal a new mechanism, dependent on p27(Kip1) induction, by which δ-tocotrienol can inhibit proliferation in PDCA cells, providing a new rationale for p27(Kip1) as a biomarker for δ-tocotrienol efficacy in pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy.


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