Table 3.  Improvement in primary outcome measures after 52 weeks


Outcome measure
Mean (SD) effects
Difference (95% CI)
Manual therapy
Physiotherapy
General practitioner care
Manual therapy v physiotherapy
Manual therapy v general practitioner care
Physiotherapy v general practitioner care
Perceived recovery 71.7 (43) 62.7 (37) 56.3 (36) 9.0 (-7.9 to 25.8) 15.4 (-1.3 to 32.1)  6.5 (-10.9 to 23.8)
Pain intensity* 4.2 (2.4) 3.1 (2.9) 4.1 (2.9) 1.2 (0.1 to 2.1) 0.1 (-0.8 to 1.1) -1.0 (-2.0 to 0.002)
Functional disability* 7.2 (7.5) 6.3 (8.0) 8.5 (7.4) 0.9 (-1.9 to 3.6) -1.4 (-4.1 to 1.3) -2.2 (-5.0 to 0.5)
Utility 0.82 (0.13) 0.79 (0.14) 0.77 (0.16) 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.09) 0.05 (-0.01 to 0.11) 0.02 (-0.04 to 0.09)

* Differences in mean effects within each intervention between baseline and 52 weeks.