The General Health, Wellness and Chiropractic Page
This page is devoted to reviewing articles that support wellness (and maintenance) care.
Immune Responses to Spinal Manipulation
Dynamic Chiropractic ~ May 6, 2011
For many years, chiropractors have observed in their own practices that their patients sometimes demonstrate improvements of complaints related to immune problems: the disappearance or lessening of allergy symptoms, quicker recovery from or less frequent and severe colds and other respiratory infections, and so on. In the scientific literature, there have been occasional case reports that corroborate such findings, but no sound evidence to really document their veracity. These clinical observations remain suspended in that grey area unsubstantiated by scientific data to confirm their validity. Significant limitations of changes attributed to spinal manipulation in individual patients include 1) there is never a control group; 2) there is no blinding; 3) the improvement may simply be due to time; 4) they may be a nonspecific effect of care and attention; 5) it may be a regression to the mean; or 6) the result may be due to something other than spinal manipulation.
Early Life Infections Improve the Function of the Immune System
American Journal of Clinical Chiropractic 2006 (Apr); 16 (2): 22–25
This collection of medical citations presented by Dan Murphy, DC demonstrates that early exposure to antibiotic use and Pertussis vaccination contribute to the development of atopic disorders such as asthma, and hay fever, and may also be associated with the onset of pediatric lymphoblastic leukemia. Our thanks to the American Journal of Clinical Chiropractic for releasing this article exclusively at Chiro.Org!
Spinal Manipulative Therapy Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines but Not Substance P
Production in Normal Subjects
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2006 (Jan); 29 (1): 14–21
Over the study period, a significant proportion (P ≤ .05) of sham and control subjects demonstrated progressive increases in the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta. Conversely, in a comparable proportion of cultures from SMT-derived subjects, the production of both cytokines decreased gradually. Normalization of the observed alterations to reflect the changes relative to self-baselines demonstrated that, within 2 hours after intervention, the production of both cytokines increased significantly (P < .001 to .05) in both controls. In contrast, a significant (P < .001 to .05) reduction of proinflammatory cytokine secretion was observed in cultures from SMT-receiving subjects. In all study groups, serum levels of SP remained unaltered within 2 hours after intervention. SMT-treated subjects show a time-dependent attenuation of LPS-induced production of the inflammatory cytokines unrelated to systemic levels of SP. This suggests SMT-related down-regulation of inflammatory-type responses via a central yet unknown mechanism. This work was originally funded by the Consortial Center of Chiropractic Research (CCCR)
Reflex Effects of Subluxation: The Autonomic Nervous System
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000 (Feb); 23 (2): 104–106
Recent neuroscience research supports a neurophysiologic rationale for the concept that aberrant stimulation of spinal or paraspinal structures may lead to segmentally organized reflex responses of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may alter visceral function.
The Effects of Specific Upper Cervical Adjustments on the CD4 Counts
of HIV Positive Patients
Chiropractic Research J 1994; 3 (1): 32–39
These tests were performed by the patients independent medical center where they were under medical supervision for the regular group were dramatically increased over the counts of the control group. A 48% increase in CD4 cells was demonstrated over the six month duration of the study for the adjusted group.
The Effects of Chiropractic on the Immune System:
A Review of the Literature
Chiropractic Journal of Australia 1993 (Dec); 23 (4): 132–135
This paper outlines the many components of the mammalian immune system and the anatomical and physiological connections suggesting that the nervous system plays a role in the modulation of immune response. The few studies attempting to measure the effect of chiropractic or manipulative treatment on the immune system are reviewed. Their results suggest that chiropractic or manipulative treatment may influence T and B lymphocyte numbers, NK cell numbers, antibody levels, phagocytic activity and plasma beta-endorphin levels.
Enhanced Neutrophil Respiratory Burst as a Biological Marker for
Manipulation Forces: Duration of the Effect and Association with
Substance P and Tumor Necrosis Factor
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992 (Feb); 15 (2): 83–89
A critical need in assessing the clinical utility of manipulative therapy for back pain is the identification of biological changes associated with the forces applied by spinal manipulation. Such changes could then serve as markers for both sham treatment and manipulation.
Enhanced Phagocytic Cell Respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation:
Potential Role of Substance P
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991 (Sep); 14 (7): 399–408
The effect of spinal manipulation on the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes from treated adults was measured by zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence (CL). Peripheral blood was collected 15 min before and 15 min after treatment (sham manipulation, thoracic spine manipulation, or soft tissue manipulation), the cells were isolated, challenged with a standardized, opsonized luminol-containing suspension of zymosan, and monitored for CL.
Immunologic Correlates of Reduced Spinal Mobility:
Preliminary Observations in a Dog Model
FCER's International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, 1991; 118–121
To avoid severe distortion of the spine, we have developed an experimental model which focuses on reduced spinal flexibility. Reduced spinal mobility was produced by fusing selected posterior facet joints of young adult male beagles with a non-toxic, non-immunogenic fibrin sealant. This report presents the preliminary results of measures of immune cell function in four dogs whose facet joints were fused compared with immune cell function in control dogs who underwent sham spinal fusion.
Functional Ability of Natural Killer Cells as an Outcome Measure
for Chiropractic Treatment Efficacy
FCER's International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, 1991; 84–96
Previous work in our laboratory suggested that both the percentage and the absolute numbers of NK cells were significantly lower in patients presenting to the main clinic of The National College of Chiropractic (NCCC) than in asymptomatic controls (6). However, these results were obtained using conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using flow cytometry to quantitate cells and a standard cytotoxicity assay to measure cell function, we are currently assessing the numbers and functional ability of NK cells. The purpose is to develop sensitive cellular outcome measures for use in future clinical trials.
An Overview of Neuroimmunomodulation and a Possible Correlation with
Musculoskeletal System Function
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989 (Aug); 12 (4): 289–292
Activation of these receptors can be stimulatory or inhibitory depending on the neuroactive substance. The immune system may be able to communicate with the nervous system using neuromodulators and neurohormones secreted by lymphocytes. Sympathetic innervation of lymphoid tissues is not restricted to blood vessels and smooth muscle, but directly supplies lymphocytes and blood precursor cells. It is theorized that spinal fixations may adversely affect the immune response through somatosympathetic reflexes. Spinal manipulation can correct the spinal fixations and may eliminate the adverse affects of somatosympathetic reflexes.
Review More Abstracts on Chiropractic and Immune Function
Review abstracts about chiropractic and a variety of organic and visceral disorders at the wonderful International Chiropractic Pediatric Association (ICPA) website