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Figure 1

The flow chart of the YLDs estimation. Map SF-12 to GBD DW: the data were first collected from the short form-12 (SF-12), then, the individual SF-12 summary scores were mapped to an equivalent disability weight (DW); Nonfatal database: low back pain is one type of nonfatal disease, therefore, the data are input into the GBD nonfatal database; The “year” under the prevalence by location/year/age/sex represents the years 1990–2017.