Table 1

Bioavailability of glyceollins.

Animal ModelTreatmentSampleTimeMethod of MeasureMajor ResultsReferences
Female monkey
(Macaca fascicularis)
Diet containing glyceollin mixture 1, 134 mg/day representing 50% of total isoflavonoids in the dietPlasma4 h and 24 h post administration (postad)Liquid chromatographic-photodiode array mass spectrometric analysisPlasma concentration of glyceollins:
- 4 h: 134.2 ± 34.6 nmol/L, representing only 11.6 % of the plasma isoflavonoids level
- 24 h: Undetectable ˂ 1 nmol/L
Wood et al. [40]
Male ZDSD/Pco ratGlyceollin mixture, gavage, 30 and 90 mg/kgPlasma20, 60, 120 and 240 minutes (min) postadHPLC-electrospray ionization-MS/MSPlama concentration of glyceollins:
- 20 min: Starts to be detectable
- the next 220 min: Remains stable
For dose 30 mg/kg: Ranges from 81.2 to 118.4 ng/mL
For dose 60 mg/kg: Ranges from 118.2 to 159.0 ng/mL
- 60 min: Peak concentration
Boué et al. 2012 [41]
Glyceollin mixture, gavage, 90 mg/kg/days for 2 weeksPlasma, feces, and urinePlasma: 3 h postad
Feces: Once daily for 2 weeks
Urine: 24 h collection postad a single dose
Precursor and product ion scanning using liquid chromatography coupled online with Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry- Rapidly absorption, glyceollins undergo phase I and phase II metabolism in the small intestine and the liver
- Metabolites of glyceollins were identified in the plasma, the urine, and the feces
Phase I conjugation: Epoxidation, hydroxylation…
Phase II conjugation: Sulfate and glucuronide conjugations…
Quadri et al. 2013 [43], Quadri et al. 2014 [44]
1 Glyceollin mixture contains glyceollin I, glyceollin II and glyceollin III.