Table 2

Summary of biological effects of stilbenoids.

Cardiovascular/Blood Pressure
BehbahaniWKY ratresveratrol2.5 mg/kg per day (for 10 weeks)increased compliance and reduced wall stiffness in mesenteric small arteries
Thandapilly et al. [55]SHRresveratrol2.5 mg/kg per day (for 10 weeks)prevention of developed concentric hypertrophy, systolic/diastolic dysfunction; no effect on blood pressure (BP)
Li et al. [56]SHRresveratrol200 mg/kg (for 4 weeks)increased endothelial NO production; reduced BP
Riche et al. [59]humanpterostilbene125 mg twice daily (for 6–8 weeks)increased LDL cholesterol and reduced BP
Tome-Carneiro et al. [110]human, stable coronary artery diseasegrape extract + resveratrol8.1 mg/day (6 months); then 16.2 mg/day (6 months)increased anti-inflammatory serum adiponectin, decreased thrombogenic PAI-1
Platelet biology
Olas et al. [63]in vitroresveratrol25–100 μg/mLinhibition of adhesion of platelets to fibrinogen/collagen
I/R Injury
Yu et al. [79]SD rat (30 min ischemia;
3 h reperfusion)
pterostilbene10 mg/kgreduced superoxide generation, MDA; increased SOD; reduced myocardial infarction and apoptosis
Hung et al. [82]SD ratpiceatannol2.5 × 10−4 g/kgreduced incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation; prevention of mortality, increased NO and decreased LDH levels
Um et al. [120]AMPK subunit (α1/α2) deficient miceresveratrol400 mg/kg per day (12 weeks)AMPK dependent: increased insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and mitochondrial biogenesis
Bhatt et al. [121]humans (with type II diabetis mellitus)resveratrol250 mg/day for 3 monthsimproved HbA1c, systolic BP, total cholesterol and total protein
Gomez-Zorita et al. [125]diabetic rat (induced by obesogenic diet)pterostilbene15–30 mg/day for 6 weeksimproved glycaemic control due to increased hepatic glucokinase activity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake
Nemes-Nagy et al. [129]human (children with T1DM)blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate3 × 1 comprimates per day for
2 months
increased SOD activity, decreased levels of glycated hemoglobin and increased C peptide concentration
Ren et al. [141]SD ratresveratrol15–30 mg/kg for 7 daysReduced cerebral infarct volume, decreased MDA levels, restored SOD activity, increased Nrf2 and HO-1 and reduced caspase-3 expression
Ma et al. [143]rat model (vascular dementia)resveratrol25 mg/kg per daydecreased malonyldialdehyde levels; increased SOD activity and glutathione levels; improved learning and memory ability
Naik et al. [144]SD rat (streptozotocin-induced memory deficit)pterostilbene10–50 mg/kg per day for 13 daysimproved memory and cognition; improved brain antioxidants [catalase, SOD, glutathione (GSH)]; improved cholinergic transmission.
Ban et al. [145]SD ratoxyresveratrol10 μMinhibition of Aβ-induced neuronal cell death, elevation of cytosolic [Ca] and ROS generation
Evans et al. [150]human (postmenopausal women)resveratrol75 mg twice per day for 14 weeksimproved memory, mood and overall
cognitive performance
Timmers et al. [156]Human (obese)resveratrol150 mg/day for 30 daysreduced sleeping and resting metabolic rate; in muscle, activated AMPK, increased SIRT1 and PGC-1α protein levels; decreased systolic BP and improved HOMA index
Aguirre et al. [163]Zucker (fa/fa) rat modelpterostilbene15–30 mg/kg per day for 6 weeksincreased thermogenic and oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue
Nutakul et al. [179]human colon cancer cellsresveratrol and pterostilbene0–100 μM for between 30 min to
10 days
pterostilbene: more potent inhibitor of colony formation, stronger apoptosis-inducing effects, and 2–4-fold higher intracellular pterostilbene levels than resveratrol
Jayasooriya et al. [178]human prostate
cancer cells
piceatannol0–40 μM for 24 hinhibition of TNF-α-induced invasion of cancer cells through suppression of MMP-9 activation via the Akt-mediated NF-ĸB pathway
Remsberg et al. [30]SD ratsgnetol10–100 mg/kg per day, for 0–72 hreductions in cell viability in cancer cell lines (i.e., colorectal cancer); activities in COX-1, COX-2, histone deacetylase and decreased inflammation
Lee et al. [189]male guinea pig modelresveratroldissolved in ethanol/propylene glycol (3:7, v/v)reduced expression of melanogenesis-related proteins; decreased hyperpigmentation in ultraviolet B-stimulated skin
Yoon et al. [190]B16/F10 murine
melanoma cells
pterostilbene and resveratrol trimethyl ether (RTE)10 μM for 48 hinhibition of α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis, stronger downregulation of tyrosinase protein expression and α-MSH stimulated protein than RTE
Yokozawa et al. [192]B16/F10 melanoma cellspiceatannol0–400 μM for 24 hgreater antityrosinase activity than kojic and resveratrol; down-regulation of melanin content, suppressed ROS generation and enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio