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Table 2

National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) levels of evidence

LevelIntervention Studies
ISystematic review of level II studies
IIRandomised controlled trial
III-IPseudo-randomised controlled trial (i.e. alternate allocation or some other method)
III-2Comparative study with concurrent controls:
•Non-random, experimental trial
•Cohort study
•Case-control study
•Interrupted time series with a control group
III-3Comparative study without concurrent controls:
•Historical control study
•Two or more single arm study
•Interrupted time series without a parallel control group
IVCase series with either post-test or pre-test/post-test outcomes

NB. Adapted from NHMRC Levels of evidence [58]

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