Table 3

Summary of Potential Risk factors

Potential risk factorLikelyWeak/no significanceMixed results/ inconsistentLimited research
Female sexX
Older age/ advanced pubertal statusX
Positive family history of back painX
Increased growth spurtX
History of back painX
Insufficient sleepX
Increased screen timeX
Psychosocial factorsX
Muscle flexibilityX
Socioeconomic statusX
Backpack related factorsX
Height and weightX
Physical activityX
Spinal postureX
Sitting positionX
Systemic/illness factorsX
Muscle enduranceX