Table 1

Overview of the included studies for quality assessment

Author and yearStudy design and settingAge of cohort at baselinePurpose of studyNumber of follow-upsTime between follow-upsSample sizeMethods for data collectionOutcome measures of LBPIdentified terminology for patterns of LBP
Aartun, 2014School-based prospective cohort study11–13 yearsCourse of LBP12 yearsBaseline: 1291
Follow-up: 1064 (82%)
Electronic questionnaire1) Point prevalence
2) 1-week prevalence
3) Lifetime prevalence
1) Never LBP
2) Development of LBP
3) Changes in frequency of LBP
Burton, 1996School-based prospective cohort study11 yearsNatural history of LBP41 yearBaseline: 216
Follow-up (T5): 147 (68%)
Questionnaire; interviews first 2 years, then self-administered1) Lifetime prevalence1) Single, discrete spell of LBP
2) Recurrent LBP
Coenen, 2017Follow-up in a birth cohort17 yearsTrajectories of LBP23 and 2 yearsBaseline: 1050
Follow-up (T2): 1033 (98%) (not same responders T1–3)
Self-administered questionnaire1) 1 month prevalence1) Consistenly low probability of LBP
2) Increase in prevalence of LBP
3) Decrease in the prevalence of LBP
4) Consistently high prevalence of LBP
Grimmer, 2006School-based prospective cohort study13 yearsTracking of LBP4Yearly samplesBaseline: 434
Follow-up (T5): 174 (40%)
Self-administered questionnaire1) 1-week prevalence1) Recent LBP
2) Variability of LBP
1) Repeated reporting
2) Regular LBP
3) Consistency of occurrence of LBP
Kjaer, 2011School-based prospective cohort study9 yearsTracking of LBP34 yearsBaseline: 479
Follow-up: 443 (92%) (not same responders T1–4)
Questionnaire by interviews1) Point prevalence
2) 1-week prevalence
3) 1 month prevalence
1) No LBP
2) Still LBP
3) Changes in reports of LBP
Mikkelsson, 1997School-based prospective cohort study9 yearsPersistence of LBP11 yearBaseline: 1756
Follow-up:1628 (92%)
Self-administered questionnaire1) 3 months prevalence1) Seldom or never LBP
2) Persistence of LBP
Sjolie, 2004School-based prospective cohort study14 yearsPersistence and change in LBP13 yearsBaseline: 88Follow-up:
85 (97%)
Self-administered questionnaire1) 1-year prevalence1) No LBP
2) Still LBP
3) Persistent, but changeable LBP
Szpalski, 2002School-based prospective cohort study9 yearsPrediction of LBP12 yearsBaseline: 287
Follow-up: 287 (100%)
Self-administered questionnaire1) Lifetime prevalence1) No LBP
2) Identical LBP
3) Ongoing LBP