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Fig. 1

Number of recurrences. SP: spinal pain. CMP: co-occurring musculoskeletal pain. EoCC: Expectations of the clinical course. NRS: Numerical Rating Scale baseline pain intensity. KID: sum score from KIDScreen questionnaire on quality of life. IRR: incidence rate ratio. CI: confidence interval. p: p-value for interaction. MT: manipulative therapy. Non-MT: non-manipulative therapy