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Table 1

Eligibility criteriaInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Pain was spinal and still present at the time of the interviewSpinal pain equal to or greater than 3 on an 11-box Numerical Rating Scale for more than 3 daysSerious pathology (cancer, inflammatory diseases, vertebral fractures, cauda equina syndrome)
Parent had agreed, on behalf of the child, to inclusion in the RCT

Fever and/or weight loss

Nightly pain

Unexplainable bruises

No manual treatment of the spine during the previous 2 monthsHandicaps preventing normal physical activity