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Table 4

Comparison of ICF categories found in children aged 9–12 years to what is covered in commonly used adult low back and neck pain questionnaires

ICFLow back pain questionnairesNeck pain questionnaires
CategoryDescriptionODI40 41RMDQ40NDI39 42NBQ39 42NPDS39 42

Body functions

 b134Sleep function++++
 b152Emotional function++++
 b280Sensation of pain+++++
 b7Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions(+)
 b780Sensations related to muscles and movement functions

Activities and participation

 d430Lifting and carrying objects++++
 d710Basic interpersonal interactions
 d750Informal social relationships++
 d4150Maintaining a lying position+
 d4153Maintaining a sitting position++
 d4154Maintaining a standing position++
 d4155Maintaining head position
 d7500Informal relationships with friends
 d7504Informal relationships with peers
 d7601Child-parent relationships

Environmental factors

 e580Health services, systems and policies


 pfImproving factors
 pfWorsening factors
 pfStrategies to avoid pain
 ncCause of pain known/unknown
As Wang et al40 and Wiitavaara42 both include the ODI, the ICF classifications have been combined to include all ICF categories used.

(+) = covered with an ICF category either at a higher or lower level.

*Category wordings of pf and nc are the codes from this study.

ICF = international classification of function, disability and health;
NBQ = neck bournemouth questionnaire;
nc = not classifiable;
NDI = neck disability index;
NPDS = neck pain and disability scale;
ODI = oswestry disability index;
pf = personal factor;
RMDQ = roland-morris disability questionnaire.