Spinous attachment units in the Cleveland model of spine fixation. This is the earliest known animal model of spine subluxation. The ELM presented in this article is similar in conceptual approach.
A, Axial view of the vertebral attachment. The device attached to the spinous process via a needle tip using a pincer action (arrow).
B, Lateral view of 3 units linked together with an external jig (reproduced with permission from Cleveland ).