Table 1

Descriptions of clinical outcome measures

Clinical outcomeOutcome measureDescriptionScoring
DizzinessNumerical rating scale (NRS11)Participants were asked to rate their dizziness experiences ‘today’ with 0 indicating no dizziness and 10 very severe dizziness.0–10

DizzinessDizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI)DHI is a comprehensively validated measure of disability due to dizziness from a range of causes [48], and has demonstrated responsiveness to chiropractic interventions in older people [30].0–100

Neck painNRS11Participants were asked to rate their neck pain experience ‘today’ from 0 (no pain) to 10(very severe pain).0–10
Neck painNeck disability index (NDI)NDI is a 10 item questionnaire reporting pain and difficulties with everyday activities [49].0–100

Quality of lifeSF12SF12 is a 12-point questionnaire that gives two combined scores: a physical component score (PCS) and a mental component score (MCS).PCS: 0–50
MCS: 0–50

MoodDisability Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21)DASS contains 21 questions that report depression, anxiety and stress symptoms within the past week. Each component is scored separately. Interpretation is as follows: depression normal 0–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–12 extremely severe 13–21; anxiety normal 0–3, moderate 4–6, severe 7–9, and extremely severe 10–21; stress normal 0–6, moderate 7–11, severe 12–16, and extremely severe 17–21 [50].Depression 0–21
Anxiety 0–21
Stress 0–21

Concerns of fallingFalls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I)FES-I is a 16 item questionnaire measuring the level of concern of falling undertaking activities and routines [51].16–64

Cognitive functionMontreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)MoCA is a 10-min screening assessment for cognitive impairment. The domains are: attention and concentration, executive functions, memory, language, visuo-constructional skills, conceptual thinking, calculations, and orientation.0–30

Physical function, mobility and balanceStep testThe number of times a person can repeatedly step one foot up and down on and off a standard 7.5 cm height step in 15 s [52]. Both feet were tested and a combined score was used.Number of steps.
Timed Up and Go (TUG)A measure of the time taken to stand up from a standard height armchair, walk a distance of three metres, turn, return and sit back down in the chair [53].The time taken in seconds.
Functional reachThe distance an individual can reach forward with their dominant arm extended at horizontal, while standing. This is scored with the difference between starting reach and furthest reach in centimetres [54].The distance in centimetres.
Four-square step testThe time taken to step in a sequence of forward, to the left, backwards and to the right, and then reversed. Each step is performed over an obstacle to increase difficulty [55].The time taken in seconds.
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