Table 2

Pre- and post- intervention clinical outcome measures

Sham groupChiropractic group
Pre n = 11Post n = 10Pre n = 13Post n = 12
Female (n)5(46%)5(50%)6(46%)5(42%)

Age (years)72.55(4.27)72.9(4.33)74.23(5.83)73.75(5.82)

Cognitive function (MoCA) (0–30)a26.09(1.92)26.90(1.60)26.00(2.16)26.25(2.67)

Dizziness (0–10) b4.00(3.58)3.50(2.88)3.85(2.12)2.58(2.64)

Dizziness handicap (DHI) (0–100)b44.00(16.97)36.40(20.11)40.77(12.48)28.33(14.37)

Joint pain (NRS-11) (0–10)b2.27(2.33)3.30(2.21)2.69(2.02)2.92(2.84)

Neck pain (NRS-11) (0–10)b2.82(1.78)3.60(2.12)4.38(2.36)2.75(2.49)

Neck pain (NDI) (0–100)b24.18(8.22)22.80(6.20)24.94(12.87)19.07(12.50)

Concerns of falling (FES-I) (16–64)b29.00(5.71)26.70(6.29)26.00(5.61)24.42(5.21)

SF12 PCS (0–100)c36.20(8.45)40.18(10.98)42.12(6.91)43.96(10.01)

SF12 MCS (0–100)c49.20(10.79)49.98(8.71)47.76(9.75)52.90(9.45)

 Depression (DASS) (0–21)b8.55(4.99)7.20(6.20)5.38(4.03)3.50(4.52)
 Anxiety (DASS) (0–21)b8.73(6.28)6.20(6.43)6.00(2.58)4.50(2.97)
 Stress (DASS) (0–21)b10.73(5.61)7.60(5.48)9.08(6.09)8.33(7.02)

Physical function
 Functional reach (cm)d32.41(5.90)30.60(10.30)29.93(11.75)31.25(8.37)
 Step test sum (n)d27.09(6.16)26.10(7.08)25.46(7.09)26.08(8.45)
 Four square step test (seconds)e11.20(2.51)14.18(8.24)11.92(2.95)11.22(3.18)
 Timed up & go (seconds)e12.09(2.87)12.36(4.11)12.18(2.70)11.87(3.67)
 Correctly identified which group they were allocated to (n)5(50%)8(67%)
 Treatment satisfaction (1–5)f3.60(0.70)3.58(1.00)
Values displayed as mean(standard deviation) or number(percentage)

M mean, SD standard deviation, MoCA Montreal cognitive assessment, NDI neck disability index, DHI dizziness handicap inventory, PCS physical health composite score, MCS mental health composite score, DASS depression anxiety and stress scale.

aa lower score indicates reduced cognitive function

ba higher score indicates greater symptoms

ca higher score indicated greater quality of life

da higher score indicates greater physical function

ea faster time indicates greater physical function

f1-I feel much worse 2-I feel worse 3-I feel the same 4-I feel better 5-I feel much better

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