Table 3

Summary of Evidence for Selected Complementary Health Approaches by Type of Pain - sham or placebo, attention controls

ApproachBack painFibromyalgiaOAa of kneeNeck painSevere Headache/Migraine

Acupuncture1 positive trial, 2 negative1 positive trial, 3 negative trials1 positive trial, 3 negative?b? b

Chondroitin? b? b1 negative trial? b? b

Glucosamine? b? b2 positive trials, 3 negative trials? b?

Chondroitin & Glucosamine?1 positive trial, 2 negative trials?? b

Massage therapyOne positive trial? b? b2 positive trialsOne positive trial

MSMa? b? b1 positive trial? b? b

Omega 3 fatty acids? b? b? b? bOne negative trial

Relaxation approaches? b1 positive trial, 2 negative?? b3 positive trials

SAMea? b? b? b? b

Spinal Manipulation6 positive trials, 3 negative? b? bOne negative trialOne positive trial

Osteopathic Manipulation1 positive trial, 1 negative? b? b? b? b

Tai Chi? b2 positive trials3 positive trials? b?

YogaOne positive trialb?1 positive trial? b? b

MSM = Methylsulfonylmethane;
OA = osteoarthritis;
SAMe = S-Adenoysl methionine

b no U.S. RCT’s identified