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Table 1.

Baseline Measures of Demographic Variables and Clinical Pain, Pain Sensitivity, and Psychological Variablesa

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a All findings are presented as means (standard deviation) unless otherwise indicated.
SB = stationary bicycle
LEE = lumbar extension exercises
SMT = spinal manipulative therapy
LBP = low back pain
NRS = numeric rating scale, with anchors of 0 ("no pain at all") and 100 ("worst pain imaginable")
FPQ = Fear of Pain Questionnaire
CSQ-R = Coping Strategies Questionnaire
TSK = Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia
STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
ASI = Anxiety Sensitivity Index.