The RCGP - Clinical and Special Projects, Clinical Guidelines, Acute Low Back Pain. Contents, Index page




Abenhaim L, Rossignol M, Gobielle D, Bonvalot Y, Fines P, Scott S (1995) The prognostic consequences in the making of the initial medical diagnosis of work-related injuries. Spine 20:791-795 (cohort study)

AHCPR (1994) Management Guidelines for acute low back pain. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, US Department of Health and Human Services

Assendelft WJJ, Koes BW, Knipschild PG, Bouter LM (1995) The relationship between methodological quality and conclusions in reviews of spinal manipulation. JAMA 274: 1942-1948 (systematic review)

Bergquist-Ullman M, Larsson U (1977) Acute low back pain in industry. Acta Orthop Scand (Suppl) 170:1-117 (RCT)

Biering-Sorensen F (1984) Physical measurements as risk indicators for low-back trouble over a one-year period. Spine 9:106-119 (cohort study)

Biering-Sorensen F, Thomsen C (1986) Medical, social and occupational history as risk indicators for low-back trouble in a general population. Spine 11:720-725 (cohort study)

Burton AK, Tillotson KM (1991) Prediction of the clinical course of low-back trouble using multivariable models. Spine 16:7-14 (cohort study)

Burton AK, Tillotson M, Main CJ, Hollis S (1995) Psychosocial predictors of outcome in acute and subchronic low back trouble. Spine 20:722-728 (cohort study)

Chavannes AW, Gubbels J, Post D, Rutten G, Thomas S (1986) Acute low back pain: patientsí perceptions of pain four weeks after initial diagnosis and treatment in general practice. J Roy Coll Gen Prac 36:271-293 (cohort study)

Clinical Standards Advisory Group (1994a) Report on Back Pain. London: HMSO :1-89

Clinical Standards Advisory Group (1994b) Epidemiology Review: the epidemiology and cost of back pain. Annex to the CSAG Report on Back Pain. London: HMSO: 1-72 (review of epidemiological studies)

Cohen JE, Goel V, Frank JW, Bombardier C, Peloso P, Guillemin F (1994) Group interventions for people with low back pain: an overview of the literature. Spine 19:1214-1222 (systematic review)

Coomes EN (1961) A comparison between epidural anaesthesia and bed rest in sciatica. Brit Med J 264:20-24 (RCT)

Coste J, Delecoeuillerie G, Cohen de Lara A, Le Parc JM, Paolaggi JB (1994) Clinical course and prognostic factors in acute low back pain: an inception cohort study in primary care. Brit Med J 308:577-580 (cohort study)

Croft P (1996) Low Back Pain in Stevens A, Raferty J (eds) Health Care Needs Assessment 2nd series Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press (epidemiological review)

de Craen AJM, Di Giulio G, Lampe-Schoenmaeckers AJEM, Kessels AGH, Kleijnen (1996) Analgesic efficacy and safety of paracetamol-codeine combinations versus paracetamol alone: a systematic review. Brit Med J 313: 321-325

Deyo RA (1986) Patient satisfaction with medical care for low back pain. Spine 11: 28-30 (RCT)

Deyo RA, Diehl AK (1988) Psychosocial predictors of disability in patients with low back pain. J Rheumatol 15:1557-1564 (review)

Deyo RA, Rainville J, Kent DL (1992) What can the history and physical examination tell us about low back pain? JAMA 268:760-765 (cohort study)

Edwards JG, Cantopher T, Olivieri S (1990) Benzodiazepine dependence and the problems of withdrawal. Postgrad
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Evans C, Gilbert JR, Taylor W, Hildebrand A (1987) A randomized controlled trial of flexion exercises, education and bedrest for patients with acute low back pain. Physiotherapy Canada 39: 98-101 (RCT)

Evans G, Richards S (1996) Low Back Pain: An Evaluation of Therapeutic Interventions Bristol: Health Care Evaluation Unit/University of Bristol (mega-analysis)

Faas A (1996) Exercises; which ones are worth trying, for which patients and when? Spine 21: 2874-2877 (systematic review)

Fordyce WE, Brockway JA, Bergman JA, Spengler D (1986) Acute back pain: a control group comparison of behavioural vs traditional management methods. J Behav Med 9: 127-140 (RCT)

Gam AN, Johannsen F (1995) Ultrasound therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: a meta-analysis. Pain 63:85-91 (systematic review)

Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Mayer TG (1995) The dominant role of psychosocial risk factors in the development of chronic low back disability. Spine 20:2702-2709 (cohort study)

Gilbert JR, Taylor DW, Hildebrand A, Evans C (1985) Clinical trial of common treatments for low back pain in family practice. Brit Med J 291: 791-794 (RCT)

Haldeman S, Rubinstein SM (1992) Cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing manipulation of the lumbar spine. Spine 17:1469-1473 (review)

Henry D, Lim LLY, Rodriguez LAG, Gutthann SP, Carson JL et al (1996) Variability in risk of gastrointestinal complications with individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of a collaborative meta-analysis. Brit Med J: 312: 1563-1566 (systematic review)

Hurri H (1989) The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain. Part I. Benefits. Scand J Rehab Med 21:33-40 (RCT)

Indahl A, Velund L, Reikeraas (1995) Good prognosis for low back pain when left untampered. A randomized clinical trial. Spine 20: 473-477 (RCT)

Jones SL, Jones PK, Katz J (1988) Compliance for low-back pain patients in the emergency department: a randomized trial. Spine 13:553-556 (RCT)

Kendall NAS, Linton SJ, Main CJ (1997) Guide to Assessing Psychosocial Yellow Flags. Wellington, New Zealand: Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Corporation and National Advisory Committee on Health and Disability.

Klaber Moffett J, Richardson G, Sheldon TA , Maynard A (1995) Back Pain: Its Management and Cost to Society York: Centre for Health Economics/NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/University of York (economic review)

Klenerman L, Slade PD, Stanley IM, Pennie B, Reilly JP, Atchison LE, Troup JDG, Rose MJ (1995) The prediction of chronicity in patients with an acute attack of low back pain in a general practice setting. Spine 20:478-484 (cohort study)

Koes BW, Scholten RJP M, Mens JMA, Bouter LM (1996a) Efficacy of NSAIDs for low back pain: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of 11 interventions in van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM (eds) (1996) Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Effectiveness of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions Amsterdam: Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine: 171-190 (systematic review)

Koes BW, Assendelft WJJ, Van der Heijden GJMG, Bouter L M (1996b) Spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain: an updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine 21: 2860-2871 (systematic review)

Koes BW, Scholten RJPM, Mens JMA, Bouter M (1995) Efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain and sciatica: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Pain 63:279-288 (systematic review)

Koes BW, van den Hoogen HMM (1994) Efficacy of bed rest and orthoses of low back pain. A review of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil 4:86-93 (systematic review)

Koes BW, van Tulder MW, van der Windt DAWM, Bouter LM (1994) The efficacy of back schools: a review of randomized clinical trials. J Clin Epidimiol 47:851-862 (systematic review)

Lewis M (1995) MEDLINE reviews from January 1992 - September 1995 of RCTs of exercise and manipulation for acute low back pain .Unpublished. Available on request from RCGP (systematic review)

Lindequist S, Lundberg B, Wilmark R, Bergstad B, Loof G, Ottermark A-C (1984) Information and regime at low back pain Scan J Rehab Med 16: 113-116 (RCT)

Lindstrom I, Ohlund Eek C et al (1992a) The effect of graded activity on patient with subacute low back pain: a randomized prospective clinical study with an operant conditioning behavioral approach. Phys Ther 72: 279-291 (RCT)

Lindstrom I, Ohlund Eek C, Wallin L, Peterson LE, Nachemson A (1992b) Mobility, strength and fitness after a graded activity program for patients with subacute low back pain. Spine 17: 641-652 (RCT)

Linton JJ, Hellsing AL, Andersson D (1993) A controlled study of the effects of an early intervention on acute musculoskeletal pain problems. Pain 54: 353-359 (RCT)

Lloyd DCEF, Troup JDG (1983) Recurrent back pain and its prediction. J Soc Occup Med 33:66-74 (cohort study)

McGill CM (1968) Industrial back programmes: a control program. J Occup Med 10:174-178 (cohort study)

Malmivaara A, Hakkinen U, Aro Heinrichs ML, Koskenneimi L, Kuosma E, Lappi S, Paloheimo R, Servo C, Vaaranen V, Hernberg S (1995) The treatment of acute low back pain - bed rest, exercises or ordinary activity? N Eng J Med 332: 351-355 (RCT)

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