The RCGP - Clinical and Special Projects, Clinical Guidelines, Acute Low Back Pain. Contents, Index page


Chapter 2

Evidence Review

Physical Therapies


Back exercises

Physical Agents and Modalities


Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Shoe Insoles and Shoe Lifts

Lumbar Corsets and Supports

Trigger Point and Ligamentous Injections


Epidural Steroid Injections

Facet Joint Injections


Group education: back school

Group education: back school

There is wide variation in the format and content of ‘back schools’. There are two good Swedish RCTs that show positive results but reviews of all the other available studies are inconclusive.

Group education in (modifications of) the ‘Swedish back school’ may be effective in occupational settings.
The efficacy of back schools in non-occupational settings has yet to be demonstrated.

Bergquist-Ullman & Larsson 1977, Hurri 1989, Cohen et al 1994, Koes et al 1994b

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