The RCGP - Clinical and Special Projects, Clinical Guidelines, Acute Low Back Pain. Contents, Index page


Chapter 2

Evidence Review

Physical Therapies


Back exercises

Physical Agents and Modalities


Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Shoe Insoles and Shoe Lifts

Lumbar Corsets and Supports

Trigger Point and Ligamentous Injections


Epidural Steroid Injections

Facet Joint Injections


Group education: back school

Physical Agents and Modalities

This includes ice, heat, short wave diathermy, massage, ultrasound.

Although commonly used for symptomatic relief, these passive modalities do not appear to have any effect on clinical outcomes.

Gam & Johansson 1995


Back Pain Contents