The RCGP - Clinical and Special Projects, Clinical Guidelines, Acute Low Back Pain. Contents, Index page
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Chapter 2

Evidence Review

Physical Therapies


Back exercises

Physical Agents and Modalities


Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Shoe Insoles and Shoe Lifts

Lumbar Corsets and Supports

Trigger Point and Ligamentous Injections


Epidural Steroid Injections

Facet Joint Injections


Group education: back school


There are now 24 RCTs of various forms of traction in neck and back pain but they are generally of poor quality.

Traction does not appear to be effective for low back pain or radiculopathy.

van der Heijden et al 1995


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