The RCGP - Clinical and Special Projects, Clinical Guidelines, Acute Low Back Pain. Contents, Index page
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Chapter 2

Evidence Review

Physical Therapies


Back exercises

Physical Agents and Modalities


Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Shoe Insoles and Shoe Lifts

Lumbar Corsets and Supports

Trigger Point and Ligamentous Injections


Epidural Steroid Injections

Facet Joint Injections


Group education: back school

Trigger Point and Ligamentous Injections

Limited evidence, in studies that included chronic patients, suggests that the efficacy of trigger point or ligamentous injections is equivocal. There is little evidence specifically for acute low back problems. (C)
Ligamentous and sclerosant injections are invasive and can expose patients to serious potential complications. (C)


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